Conceptual Metaphors of TIME in Translations of Rubayyat of Khayyam
AbstractThe present study aims to investigate TIME conceptual metaphors in Rubayyat of Khayyam and in Fitzgerald’s translation based on Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) and the Cognitive Translation Hypothesis and Conceptual Universality and Culture-specificity Hypothesis. Accordingly, the following questions are asked: is there any difference between the mappings of TIME conceptual metaphors in Rubayyat of Khayyam and TIME conceptual metaphors in its English translation? And what are the strategies used by the translator in Similar Mapping Conditions (SMCs) and Different Mapping Conditions (DMCs)? Accordingly, using metaphor identification methods, two quatrains of Rubayyat of Khayyam containing TIME conceptual metaphors were selected in a purposive sampling method and compared with their translations. The results indicated that in case of universal and near-universal conceptualizations, the mapping topologies of TIME conceptual metaphors are similar in the original and target texts because the translator faces SMCs, while in case of culture-specificity, facing DMCs, the translator changes mapping topologies and consequently conceptualizations. Furthermore, the translator can employ some conceptual strategies to re-conceptualize conceptual metaphors in DMCs. In addition, the translator has mostly employed the strategy of congruent metaphors in case of facing DMCs.