Translation Studies Quarterly en-US (Hussein Mollanazar) (Hamid Sadeghieh) Sun, 11 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 OJS 60 Word-selection Methods in the Translation of Elliptical and Excessive Metonymy in the Holy Qur’ān Verses Recognizing metonymy and its types are one of the keys to understanding the Holy Qur'ān. For this reason, without knowing and recognizing them, incorrect interpretations of Quranic verses are made. In this paper, firstly, the definition of the metonymy and its types, then the differences between the opinions of scholars on the elliptical and excessive metonymy have been provided. Finally, using the inductive-deductive method, examples of elliptical and excessive metonymies of the Holy Qur'ān has been given and the methods of word-selection translation of them has been analyzed in ancient selected translations (Tabari, Sur-Abadi, Nasafi, Meybodi and Abul-Futouh Razi). The result of this research shows that the mentioned translators have not used similar methods in the translation of elliptical and excessive metonymy, Tabari and Abul-Futouh Razi in most cases have translated in literal terms; however, Meybodi and Sur-Abadi and then Nasafi have mostly considered the implied meaning of the word and they have adopted content-based translation and have resorted less to literal translation. Zahra Mohammadi, Simin Valavi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 Translation Analysis of Emphasis Devices of Qasr by Negative (Lā) and Exception (Illā) in Some English Translations of the Holy Qur’ān: A Case Study of Shakir, al-Hilālī-Muhsin Khān, and Irving Translations The study of emphatic devices as grammar-rhetorical technique in Qur'ān translations reveals the union, difference, balance or unbalance of their equivalents based on the theories of translation. Regarding the position of this technique in the source language, criticism and assessment of qasr by Negative (lā) and exception (illā) equivalents can lead to precise translation based on House textual theory. Study of this technique in the English translation of Shākir, Irving, al-Hilālī-Muhsin Khān by this norm that is based on equivalent structure of source text, though reveals some weakness, indicates their rather success. In such verses one can present a good translation from structure point of view by observing correct negation, Taking attention to the word that emphasis is on it, and making it emphasized and use of intensifying "only”, "merely”, "but" before it. Though felicitous miracle of the Qur'ān, linguistics differences and the translator role, himself, have an effective role in balanced or unbalanced translation of this technique, but based on linguistic position of this technique in source language, use of House overt translation method, make appropriate proportion in this field. Mahmoud Vaezi, Muhammad Riza Rasuli Ravandi, Mahdi Moseli ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 Metaphor in Hafez's Sonnets from the Perspective of Its Arabic Translations by al-Shvarabi and Shebli The viewpoint about metaphor has completely changed from the past to the present especially after the theory of metaphor by George Laykoff and Mark Johnson enters into the field of cognitive linguistics. Based on this approach, metaphors reflect the conceptual system of the human mind that is influenced by its culture and experiences in the form of language. In this regard, it should be noted that one of the problems of translating poetry and specially Hafez's poem is linguistic and cultural concepts. In this article, we examine the methods used by the two Arab translators, Ibrahim al-Shvarabi and Omar Shebli, in translating the metaphors of the Hafez Divan, and show the impact of the methods employed in the translation of metaphors on the representation of cultural identity. For this purpose, we highlighted Hafez ghazals’ metaphors (50 ghazals of Divan of Hafez based on Qazvini version) according to classic comments, then explaining the method of translating each metaphor using Newmark's theory. The results show that Arabic-language translators, in spite of attempting to provide faithful translations and not deleting the phrases of Hafez's sonnets, have not succeeded in translating metaphors that depend on the cultural concepts of this poet. Adnan Tahmasebi, Atiyeh Yousefi, Mohammad Reza Torki, Farzaneh Farahzad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 On the Iranian-Armenian-Arabic Intercultural Exchanges and the Role of Translation Sources, references and written literature of each nation are based on legends, epics, myths and oral literature. In result of exchanges between various cultural, political, social and religious factors, translation literature contributes to the creation of a culture and national literature. Armenian written literature is one of the most prominent examples that translation has had an effective role on its development and spread during different periods. The history of Armenian translation literature has been influenced continuously by Armenian cultural, political and social changes with its ups and downs. The Armenian translation movement was the beginning of the translation of the many Assyrian, Greek, Iranian and Arabic writer’s works and the formation of the Armenian golden age literature. This article after explaining the importance of translation in the development of Armenian literature, examines the importance of the most important feature and translation role of Iranian culture in the Iranian-Armenian intercultural exchange. The study of the Armenian Arabic cultural relations, the reflection of Islamic culture in the texts of Armenian mysticism and the first Armenian translations of the Quran Karim are among the other issues discussed in this article. Language, culture and translation are three effective factors in establishing the relationship between the three nations, the three different cultures. Mohammad Malek Mohammadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 A Comparative Analysis of Description in the Story of Zal and Roodabeh of the Shahnameh and Its Arabic Translation by Bondarī Esfahani Abolqasem Ferdowsi has used beautiful artistic and literary descriptions and illustrations in many stories of Shahnameh. He put this fan to adjust the narrative time, give the visual aspect to the person, and used to create space and the formation of a curtain and the like. This research examines these definitions in forty bits from the story of Zal and Roodabeh. Considering the aesthetic functions, narratives and styles that these narratives have played in the narrative and reviewed how it was translated into Arabic translation. The results of the research show that Bondarī is influenced by his historical and religious approach in such cases, the removal, duplication, and transliteration are inaccurate. As a result, many of the logical relations of the narrative in his translation are shown without proportions and the beautiful poetry scenes of the poet have been translated into solid and uncreated and does not affect the size of the original language at all. Seyyed Mehdi Masboogh, Shahram Delshad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 Student-centred Corrections of Translations and Translation Accuracy: A Case of BA Translation Students Research into assessment is in its infancy in translation studies, and there is a paucity of research in this regard. The present study mainly aimed at: 1) examining if student-centered corrections of translations has any impact on the translation accuracy created by translation students, and 2) exploring the translation students’ reactions to the use of student-centered corrections of translations. The study adopted both qualitative and quantitative approach to gather and analyze the data. A pool of 32 BA translation students participated in this experimental study. The students were required to fill in their Correction Cards while correcting their mistakes, following the student-centered assessment developed by Sainz (1994). The results of the ANCOVA revealed that there was a significant difference in the students’ accuracy scores for subjects in the experimental group and the control group. Moreover, the results emerged from students’ responses to the interview questions revealed that translation students were satisfied with student-centered corrections of translations. As for the translation students, student-centered corrections of translations allows for self-assessment and reassessment; they can assess their progress and measure their translation performance and reevaluate themselves as many times as needed. Ghasem Modarresi, Seyyed Vahid Ghoreyshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 The Relationship between Personality Type and Iranian Undergraduate Simultaneous Interpreting Trainees’ Improvement Rate Having adopted as its departure point the impact of nonlinguistic factors on interpreting performance, the present empirical study has addressed the possible relationship between Iranian simultaneous interpreting trainees’ performance improvement and their personality type, i.e., extroversion/ introversion. Thirty five undergraduate students of English Translation at Allameh Tabataba'i University, both male and female aged 20–25, took part in the research. They received simultaneous interpreting training over eight months; with two contact hours per week, the total in-class training measured more than 60 hours. To objectively quantify the participants’ performance improvement, two tests of simultaneous interpreting (pretest and posttest) were administered and scored by three raters. Towards the end of the training period, a standard test of personality type was also conducted. The trainees’ simultaneous interpreting improvement rate was found to have almost no correlation with extroversion (r = -0.08) while it had a moderate positive correlation with the degree of introversion (r = 0.46) suggesting that introverts are better equipped for undertaking the mentally-challenging task of simultaneous interpreting. Mir Saeed Mousavi Razavi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 Translatorial Interventions and Narrative Structure <p>The present paper attempts to explore the relation between a narrative text in one language and its translated counterpart in another language, making use of Rimmon-Kenan’s (2005) narrative model, adapted to translation. First, the structure of narrative, i.e. story, text and narration is introduced in brief. Story level elements including events and characters, together with text level elements, i.e. time, characterization and focalization are chosen for analysis. These constituents of narrative are redefined to count for what happens through translation. Providing several examples, it is shown that all of these elements may change in the process of translation. Therefore, against the common belief among narratologists who claim that changing the language of a narrative does not affect its story (Rimmon-Kenan, 2005, p. 9), it is argued that the translator’s interventions in the narrative, regardless of its being conscious or unconscious, affect both the story and text levels of narrative. It is concluded that the translator’s perception of the story world and adjusting this world to the real world as experienced by the translator is the major factor responsible for these interventions. Therefore, providing several examples of translatorial interventions, the present study argues in favor of translators’ idiosyncrasies as the reason behind these interventions.</p> Farzaneh Farahzad, Afsaneh Mohammadi Shahrokh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 A Comparative Study of the Quality of Persian Translations by Google Translate and SDL Free Translation <p>As the aim of machine translation is to replicate human translation, it is of much significance to incorporate human judgments of translation quality into system development. While there have been a large number of studies on the quality of machine translation outputs in many language pairs, there are limited studies on the quality of machine translation outputs in the context of English into Persian translation as assessed by human evaluators. With this in mind, the present research investigated into the quality of translations by Google Translate and SDL Free Translation in terms of clarity, accuracy, style and informativeness as assessed by professional as well as student translators in the context of translation from English into Persian<em>. </em>The texts chosen for evaluation by two machine translation systems consisted of four extracts adapted from two different genres. The first two passages were travel guides while the other two passages were manuals. Our data indicated that while both systems provided translations which were of poor quality in terms of clarity, accuracy, style and informativeness as assessed by our evaluators, the quality of translations by Google Translate was higher than that of SDL.</p> Helia Vaezian, Ali Pakdaman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 11 Feb 2018 17:01:19 +0330 The Genesis of Drama Translation Field in Iran: A Sociological Approach This paper aims to investigate the gradual genesis of drama translation field in Iran within the context of a sociological approach to translation. The theoretical framework of this study is based on Bourdieu’s social theory. The study covers a historical and social review of Qajar period in Iran to trace the genesis of drama translation field. Understanding the early phases of the genesis of the field depends on understanding a number of socio-cultural factors which this research has tried to cover by means of a macro-structural investigation. The data in this study indicates that such socio-cultural developments as the rise of literacy rate, the translation movement, the press, the rise of new intellectual class, and the establishment of political institutions like Parliament during Qajar period reshaped Iranian society. From the Constitutional Revolution onwards, Iran saw the progressive genesis of different fields (political, cultural, literary, journalistic, criticism) and also the emergence of new cultural agents (drama translators, playwrights, critiques, theatrical groups, theater magazines). Accordingly, all these socio-cultural factors and the interactions among the agents made the genesis of drama translational field possible. Hussein Mollanazar, Farideh Shabani Rad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 Strategies of Censorship in Translating Children’s Stories from English into Persian Censorship is a form of manipulative rewriting of discourse by one agent or structure over another agent or structure, aiming at filtering the stream of information from one source to another. Censorship has an important role in the translation of Children’s literature. The present research aimed to find answers to two questions: 1) in what domain (moral, religious, political, and military) is censorship mostly applied in translation of children’s stories? 2) Which censorship strategies were utilized more in children stories? To this end, a corpus comprising 25 stories for children plus their Persian translations was complied. Next the corpus was studied utilizing Toury's norms and Dukate’s categorization. Then all the 25 books and their Persian translations were compared and contrasted. The results indicated that, religious censorship in pictures and text chunks of children's stories had the highest frequency. It seems that sensitivity of censorship strategies mostly concentrates on the religious issues. Khatereh Vahhabzadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330