Translation Studies Quarterly en-US (Hussein Mollanazar) (Hamid Sadeghieh) Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 OJS 60 The Appropriateness of the Vocabularies Applied in Children’s Translated Literature: A Corpus-based Approach In order to facilitate any communication with child’s world, the level of difficulty and size of the vocabularies used for children is expected to be lower than adult’s literature so that the comprehension of the translated children text can become easier for children. This research intended to answer the following question: Are the vocabularies prepared in the children’s translated book in Persian appropriate for their age group in comparison with the Persian core vocabularies? The present study claimed to be descriptive and qualitative in its approach to translation. The following paper was based on descriptive translation studies proposed by Toury. Moreover the corpus applied in the research was monolingual comparable corpus. To answer the research question, the following procedures were attempted: 64 stories from different publications and the Iranian primary school core vocabularies, prepared by the Organization for Educational Research and Programming, ministry of education of Iran whose organizer was doctor Nematzade, were compared. The research revealed that the vocabularies in the children’s translated books were not completely appropriate for their age group in comparison with the core vocabularies. Mina Zandrahimi, Azadeh Sharifi Moghaddam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Determining the Type and Weight of Clauses of Relational Process in Google Translate Persian into English by Translation Evaluation Model of HAR from Halliday's SFG Lexico-grammar errors in 10 clauses of relational process, translated by Google Translate Persian into English, are analyzed from SFG using the HAR pattern designed by the authors. Since the ratio of the unmarked identified-identifier clauses to marked identified-identifier clauses and the ratio of unmarked carrier-attribute clauses to marked carrier-attribute clauses in Ph.D. thesis was 4 to 1, here 4 unmarked and 1 marked identified-identifier clauses and 4 unmarked and 1 marked carrier-attribute clauses have been deliberately selected to be investigated. HAR error codes of 2, 3, 4, and 6 which are considered as more serious errors due to having more direct relationship to textual and experimental metafunctions were less than other error codes, meaning these two metafunctions are considerably taken into account by Google Translate in relational process. Zeinolabedin Rahmani, Ferdows Aghagolzadeh, Aliyeh Kord Zaferanlou Kambouzia, Arsalan Golfam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Investigation of the Accessibility of Online Citations in Iranian Researchers’ Articles Indexed in ISI in Translation Studies This study was intended to investigate the URLs of web resources in Iranian researchers’ articles indexed in ISI in translation studies. This applied research was of quantitative measurement type. The research method was citation analysis. The statistical population of this research was all articles by Iranian researchers in translation studies in ISI database which were indexed in SSCI (Social Science Citation Index). The results of this research revealed that in articles written by Iranian researchers indexed in ISI in translation studies there were 2411 citations of which 18 percent were online citations. The most frequently used domain in all three fields was .org. The most stable and persistent domains were .org and .com. The most frequent file format was pdf which had the highest rate of stability together with html. The status of inaccessible internet addresses in all investigated articles regarding error messages also indicated that in translation studies, 404 error message (Not found) was the most frequent error with 24 percent. The average half-life of online citations calculated in all investigated articles was 1 year and 11 months. Oranus Tajedini, Azita Ghazizadeh, Ali Sadat-Mousavi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Dialogism and Polyphony: Silent Cry of Text Novel is inherently full of linguistic and paralinguistic subtleties. More than one actor is usually presented in novel; each of them has its own tone and speech by which they enter into interaction and dialog with each other. Through these conversations some parts of the actors’ identity along with the author’s intention is revealed to readers. This issue could be considered relevant to Bakhtinian concepts of dialogism and polyphony. According to Bakhtin, each narrative personality has its own voice (Ahmadi, 1393, p. 109) and finally all these different voices together form the literary text. Recognizing and reflecting these two phenomena in literary translation has great significance as it results in creating almost the same aesthetic-affective impact of the original text. In this qualitative-analytical study, the way of reflecting and transferring these features in translation is investigated; to this end, a contrastive analysis was applied to two different translations of Le père Goriot by Balzac. The results indicate that the translator’s awareness of coexisting voices in a text and ability to distinguish the various registers and tones of the actors end in preservation of dialogic and polyphonic nature of the original text; consequently by avoiding homogenization a more faithful translation has been provided. Sepideh Navabzadeh Shafi’i, Moluk Daneshmand ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 The Qualitative Assessment of Arabic Translation of Nezami's Haft Peikar Based on Antoine Berman's Theory: A Case Study of al-Arāes al-Sab’ of Abdul Aziz al-Baghghush Antoine Berman, with his theory "tendances déformantes" (deformation tendencies), emphasized on the importance of the Other by underscoring the original text. He believed that translators must respect the original text and be faithful toward it. In this paper, we examine the Arabic translation of Haft Peikar by Abdul Aziz Al-Baghghush, using seven parameters of Berman's theory. The conclusion shows the main reasons of deviation in Arabic translation from Haft Peikar of Nezami are as follows: translator's incompetence in the Persian language, grammatical and lexical differences between Arabic and Persian and naturally mismatch of culture, civilization, and traditions between these two nations. Ali Afzali, Marziyeh Datubar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Map of Translation Research in Iran: A Local Meta-analysis The valuable background of research on translation in Iran propelled us to measure the strengths and weaknesses of the present state of Translation Studies in Iran. For this purpose, 956 research projects published in the form of dissertations and journal articles were analyzed using Van Doorslaer’s (2009) classification of research areas in Translation Studies with a few modifications. The results showed research on translation act has been slightly more frequent than research on translation studies. On the level of translation practice, written translation was the most favorable compared to multimedia translation and interpreting. Regarding written translation, the studies focused on translation strategies, textual elements in translation and translation mode. In translation studies research, approaches to translation and applied research on translation studies were more common than the other two subcategories i.e. translation theories and research methods. From among the subareas of applied translation studies, translation didactics received the most attention and translation evaluation, terminology, technology, and institutional and professional environments were the next most prevalent subareas respectively. Reza Arta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Persian to English Translation Problems of Topicalization Process in Apertium Platform Machine translation encounters several problems in translating from Persian language to English, due to morphological, lexical, and structural divergences between these languages. It becomes especially more difficult when the source language (SL) has specific characteristics which are unavoidable in the process of machine translation systems. This article is going to present some syntactic problems, the Apertium shallow-transfer rule-based machine translation (RBMT) platform encounters in translating structures with topilcalization from Persian to English, and tries to solve them based on the Apertium structural transfer module. Then, this developed Apertium system is evaluated using word error rate (WER) and position-independent error rate (PER), metrics and its quality is compared with that of Google translate as a statistical machine translation system. The Apertium Persian monolingual dictionary was extracted from the frequent words of Wikipedia Persian Monolingual Corpus and Persian side of Mizan English-Persian Parallel Corpus. The result shows that the syntactic translation problems mainly arise from Persian syntactic structures with topicalized constituents which are difficult to be handled by the Apertium structural transfer module. One way to solve them is writing new structural transfer rules to translate these structures more adequately. Parya Razmdideh, Abbas Ali Ahangar, Seyyed Mojtaba Sabbagh Jafari, Gholamreza Haffari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Translation as Interpretation: A Hermeneutical View toward Translation The present paper investigates translation from a hermeneutical angle. Seeking the interrelationship between translation and hermeneutics besides exploring the very similar interpretive basis of the two, this study presents the hermeneutical theory as a legitimate discourse for discussing contemporary translation. Not far from expectation, translation is a dynamic task to be performed on the basis of a deep understanding of the source text. This makes translation a hermeneutical act by its very nature. At this juncture, one may say that the whole matter of translation is about hermeneutics and interpretation. The first and foremost implication of this acknowledgement is the celebration of the pluralistic nature of translation which does not simply succumb to any transcendental thinking so prevalent in translation tradition. This plurality is illustrated through investigating different translations of T.S. Eliot's poems through Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics. As revealed in this study, the translator's understanding of the source poem and his subsequent translation is an interpretive one. This means that different translations which illustrate different fusions of horizons can stand as equally valid interpretations, and each translation is far from being definitive and determinate. Salar Manafi Anari, Farnaz Safdari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Towards a Fuzzy Logic of Translation <p>This study pits Aristotelian logic against fuzzy logic in the context of translation. It takes as its point of departure the fuzziness of language in general and translation in particular, arguing that seeking pinpoint precision in translation is doomed from the outset and the myriad of dichotomies and apparent contradictions in translation no longer have to be viewed from the either/or lenses of Aristotelian logic. It is, therefore, all the more reason for us to account for fuzziness in translation more seriously and systematically. One prime theoretical candidate enabling us to investigate translation as such is fuzzy logic, which despite its potential has rarely been exploited in translation theories. While Aristotelian logic accords a value of either 0 or 1 to propositions, fuzzy logic allows truth values to range from 0 to 1, rendering propositions both true and false, on the one hand, and partially true and partially false, on the other. Then, the study sets out to look at the issue of equivalence, which has been traditionally beset by dichotomous thinking, from a fuzzy-logical perspective and discusses its theoretical implications.</p> Hussein Mollanazar, Ghodrat Hassani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Conflict Resolution Strategies in the Iran-Iraq War Books Iran is located in the Western Asia, an area with a long history of violent, bloody conflicts. Iranian translators who work in this context are frequently asked to cope with highly-charged texts which narrate and comment on its current and past conflicts. This study was aimed to examine and classify their strategies of conflict resolution in dealing with such texts in Iran. The focus was on detecting the most and least frequent strategies. Salama-Carr’s (2007), and Webne-Behrman’s (1998) definition of conflict were adopted, and Thomas-Kilmann’s (1974) typology of conflict resolution strategies were used as theoretical framework. The corpus included five books of the Iran-Iraq War along with their Persian translations. The books were published by Marz-o-Boom Publications with the aim of broadening readers’ view, and providing them with Iraqi or Western (Other) perspective on the war. A descriptive statistical analysis of the corpus was carried out. The results revealed that all Thomas-Kilmann’s (1974) resolution strategies, i.e. accommodating, avoiding, competing, compromising, and collaborating were used in the corpus. Compromising and accommodating were the most and least frequent strategy, with the percentages of 54.4 % and 1.3%, respectively. The findings suggest that, in a conflict situation, collaborating and compromising are two frequent and useful strategies in the translation context that could provide the readers with Other’s perspective but direct their reading at the same time. Accommodating and avoiding are rarely used in such a situation as the first means yielding to Other’s view point, and the latter does not address the conflict. Competing is used in dealing with sensitive national and ideological issues. Hussein Mollanazar, Marzieh Maddahi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430