Translation Studies Quarterly http://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts en-US Translation Studies Quarterly 1735-0212 The Effects of the Court’s Patronage on the Selection of Books for Translation in the State Translation Bureau http://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/699 <p>This study explored the works translated in the State Translation Bureau at the time Nasser al-Din Shah Ghajar ruled in Iran. The aim was to explore the Court’s role in the selection of books for translation. To do so, libraries and online data banks were searched to prepare the list of books translated in the Bureau, and then, within the framework of Lefevere’s Patronage Theory, the Shah’s support for the translation of certain works and his negligence for certain other works were analyzed. The works on the list were categorized into travel writing, newspaper articles, history, literature, politics, geography, science, military texts, economy and others. The Shah’s interests and the need he felt for the translation of certain works as well as attempts made by the chairman of the Bureau to inform the Shah were found to be the most important factors influencing the selection of works for translation. The largest number of translated books belonged to the categories of travel writing, newspaper articles and history. In addition, books of literature, politics, geography, science and military tactics were also translated considerably. However, few books were translated in areas such as economy and agriculture, and no books were selected for translation in those areas for which the Shah felt no need, or which he opposed seriously. The non-selection of works was evaluated as relevant to the Shah’s unwillingness for reform and changes in the status quo.</p> Mazdak Bolouri Mehdi Mirkiaei Copyright (c) 2019-07-06 2019-07-06 17 65 7 20 The Role of Translation in Debut of Theatre on Iranian Stage and Evolution of Contemporary Persian Drama http://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/643 <p>Evolution of contemporary Persian drama was not without a historical background. The Iranians were acquainted with<em> dramatic conversations</em> and <em>performances</em>, the indispensable elements of theatre. From among the Inranian traditional performances it was <em>Ta’zieh</em> which could deviate from its ritual path. Developed from a simple public mourning into a full-fledged national drama, <em>Ta’zieh</em>’s theatrical aspects increased; though in Qajar period the way was paved for <em>Tazieh</em> to evolve into a national theatre, it was not promoted to that position. Social and political changes under the Constitutional Revolution shaped a new order in the Iraninan society. With reshaping of the Iranian socio-cultural polysystem the young domestic model of drama (<em>Ta’zieh</em>) was shuned by influential social classes, pushed to periphery and a foreign model (<em>Theatre</em>) was adopted. In this process translation assumed a central position. Applying polysystem theory, this study is an attempt to investigate the role and position of translation in the process of the evolution of contemporary Persian drama. To this aim, after surveying the Iranian’s familiarity with dramatic conversations and the art of performance and their paths to developing into dramatic literature, the influential people, texts, events and trends which in specific historical moments paved the way for the evolution of contemporary Persian drama were accounted.</p> Mostafa Ahmadi Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly 2019-07-05 2019-07-05 17 65 21 37 A Marxist Critique of Postcolonial Translation Studies http://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/652 <p>Postcolonial Translation Studies has been among the prominent trends in the field during the past three decades. This wide-ranging interest in postcolonial investigations of translation has been so significant that Petterson (1999) identifies “the postcolonial turn” in Translation Studies. Postcolonial approaches in Translation Studies have a twofold purpose: firstly, to investigate the effects of power imbalances in transcultural communications on translation process and product, and, secondly, to find ways in which “translation might contribute to exposing, challenging and decolonizing the legacy of colonialism and various forms of neo-colonialism in a postcolonial era” (Hui, 2013, p. 200). Another field which is engaged with the problem of power imbalances among different societies is Marxism. Marxism and postcolonial studies have both claimed to be anticolonial movements, but Marxists have been critical of postcolonial studies approach to colonialism. The present study tried to use critical perspectives provided by Marxism to see whether postcolonial Translation Studies have been contributive to the campaign against (neo)colonial exploitation of the colonized people or not. The results show that postcolonial Translation Studies has ignored the importance of Capitalism in analyzing translation in colonial and postcolonial situation. Furthermore, it is shown that the resistance strategies adapted in postcolonial translation have little significant result in the Real world.</p> Hussein Mollanazar Saeed Fuladi Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly 2019-07-05 2019-07-05 17 65 7 20 A Meta-analytical Critique of Antoine Berman’s Retranslation Hypothesis http://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/700 <p>The present article addresses the validity of Berman’s Retranslation Hypothesis (which posits that literary retranslations are closer to the original than first translations) through a systematic, meta-analytical investigation of the empirical studies conducted to the present day on this topic. To this end, a representative sample of the empirical studies regarding RH over the past three decades was collected. The list contained fourteen studies carried out in different settings and between different language-pairs. The results of the meta-analysis demonstrated that empirical data has failed to confirm RH as roughly 60% of the studies have refuted it while the remaining 40% have lent support to it. Furthermore, the results illustrated that all the studies conducted shared one finding: apart from ‘ageing’ of the translations, there are more important motivations giving rise to retranslation including source and target literary norms, translational norms, ideology, socio-political relations, translators’ attitude and experience, and so forth. The meta-analysis conducted also revealed that Berman has apparently overlooked the influence of two important factors in the formation of retranslations: text type, and the potentials of multiple (re)interpretations of texts. In light of the data, his claim that retranslations occur because first translations are ‘incomplete’ also faces serious challenges.</p> Mir Saeed Mousavi Razavi Sajjad Tahmasbi Boveiri Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly 2019-07-06 2019-07-06 17 65 21 36 Paratextual Visibility: A Case of Footnotes Used by the Iranian Fiction Translators http://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/701 <p>In the past few years, scholars have redirected the research path to a new and promising avenue wherein translator’s visibility is explored from paratexts rather than from the translations, highlighting the pivotal role and the position of translators as key agents in translation process. This article investigated the paratextual visibility of Iranian fiction translators by the examination of their footnotes to unveil the traces of translators’ self-expressions and reveal their rationales for choosing a particular translation technique. The analysis comprises footnotes of 300 English to Persian translated fictions. Data analysis resulted in a categorization of footnotes: transliteration, explanatory + transliteration, explanatory, translational, referential. A small number of footnotes were concerned with translation issue mainly revolving around mere equivalents between languages. Overall, it was found that although footnotes could be counted a precious place for translators to highlight their presence, Iranian fiction translators were less inclined to talk about their translation process and its challenges.</p> Ameneh Yari Zahra Amirian Mohammad Amiryousefi Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly 2019-07-06 2019-07-06 17 65 37 53 An Efficient Method to Add Chunker Rules in Persian to English Rule-based Apertium Machine Translation System http://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/629 <p>Rule-based machine translation (RBMT) captures linguistic information about the source and target languages. This information is retrieved from (bilingual) dictionaries and grammar rules. This paper proposes an active learning (AL) method to grow structural transfer rules at the chunker level. To this end, two sets of experiments are performed based on two types of sentences extracted from Mizan English-Persian Parallel Corpus which are selected manually and randomly. The results show adding newly written chunker rules to the transformation file using pool-based AL technique improves translation system more compared to a random chunker rule selection baseline.</p> Pariya Razmdideh Abbas Ali Ahangar Seyed Mojtaba Sabbagh-Jafari Gholamreza Haffari Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly 2019-07-05 2019-07-05 17 65 54 73 Errors in Machine Translated and Crowdsourced Post-Edited Texts http://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/637 <p>The initial objective of the present study was to identify the most and the least frequent error types in Google Translate (GT) raw outputs and the crowd(sourced) post-edited versions according to Vilar et al.’s (2006) typology. The second objective was to compare the results of error analysis between both outputs in order to address the significance of the decrease in the number of errors in post-edited texts. To this end, four English sports news texts were uploaded on Google Translator Toolkit (GTT), which is an online collaborative environment for post-editing the automatic translations rendered by GT. Subsequently, eleven M.A. students of translation studies which were categorized as unprofessional translators were invited to the online environment via email to modify the machine translations. Results of the error analysis revealed that the two categories of Incorrect Words and Unknown Words were respectively the most and the least frequent error types in both outputs. The study also showed less than fifty percent decrease in the number of errors in post-edited texts. However, some effective factors for improving the quality of crowd(sourced) post-edited outputs and the applicability of GTT were investigated based on the collected literature, an online interview with participants and the researchers’ own observations.</p> Farzaneh Farahzad Seyedsina Mirarabshahi Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly 2019-07-05 2019-07-05 17 65 74 74