Translation Studies Quarterly en-US (Hussein Mollanazar) (Hamid Sadeghieh) Fri, 30 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0430 OJS 60 "Precedent texts" and Their Translation in Translating Literary Texts from Russian to Persian <p>Precedent texts are sentences, words, or phrases that have been used previously in literary or artistic works and are familiar to a wide range of individuals in a language community. Russian linguist, Karaulov, first came to the issue of "precedent texts" in 1986 and studied aspects of this issue. In this article, after introducing, explaining the features and categorization of "precedent texts", we will deal with the difficulties of translating them in literary texts and then we will investigate and classificate different methods of translating them. To clarify the issue of translating these precedent texts in literary texts, we will examine them in the persian translation of the Chekhov's play "The Seagull" by Serozh Stepanyan. We will see that most of the "precedent texts" used in this literary work(play) are "precedent names", and the translator in translation from Russian language to Persian has used these methods: transliteration and transcription as well as footnote explanations.</p> Mahnush Eskandary Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Mon, 02 Sep 2019 12:07:46 +0430 A Comparative-analytic Study of some Theoretical Issues in Translation Studies via Freud’s Ideas <p>Psychoanalysis was founded by the famous psychoanalyst, Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), at the turn of the century. Therefore, the science of psychoanalysis does not have a long history. Moreover, in contrast to the long-standing activity of translating, translation in the form of the discipline called Translation Studies, has a short history. The present article studies some ideas of Freud and investigates the relationship between his ideas and some notions in Translation Studies. In the first part, Freud’s ideas on the unconscious and its formation are explained. Then, the process of new-born-baby’s growth, some mental disorders, and Oedipus complex are reviewed. Finally, the author investigates the relationship between the psychoanalyst’s ideas and some theoretical issues in Translation Studies. To accomplish this, it is attempted to take a look at Freud’s ideas through the spectacles of Translation Studies. Findings indicated that Oedipus complex is comparable to some concepts in translation studies; moreover, it was found that one can abstractly compare the process of new-born-baby’s growth with that of producing translation.</p> Mahmoud Afrouz Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Mon, 02 Sep 2019 12:06:33 +0430 Exploring Hybridity in a Sample of English Feature Films Dubbed into Persian by IRIB <p>The present paper explores the complex phenomenon of hybridity in the multisemiotic system of dubbing. Mollanazar and Parham’s (2009) model was used and adapted according to Delabastita’s (1989) distinction of film signs in order to identify manifestations of hybridity in all audio-verbal, audio-nonverbal, visual-verbal, and visual-nonverbal layers of dubbing. First, manifestations of hybridity characterized as unusual and strange for the target culture were identified and extracted from the Persian films dubbed by IRIB. In the next step, the type of such manifestations was determined by comparing and contrasting them with their corresponding original versions according to the first approach of Mollanazar and Parham’s (2009) model. The results revealed that Names and Dates occupied the first place not only in the total frequency of the manifestations of hybridity in the four layers, but also in the frequency of such elements in both audio-verbal and visual-verbal layers, separately. The audio-verbal and visual-nonverbal layers were the first and second layers which showed the most frequent manifestations among four layers, respectively. As far as the type of such elements is concerned, concrete Cultureme manifestations (CCMs) were the most frequent type.</p> Hussein Mollanazar, Arghavan Omranipour Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 30 Aug 2019 10:33:05 +0430 A Narrative-Argumentation Framework for Translation Quality Assessment <p>Although argumentation theory can contribute to translation studies and especially translation quality assessment (TQA), argumentation models need to be further expanded to specifically serve the process of translation. How an argument is embedded within a larger body of text (e.g. a book chapter), and how the argument-related structural pieces are put together through textual progression represent some of the challenging questions that assessors/practitioners of translation need to deal with. This study proposes a holistic, multi-genre TQA framework that relies on narrative theory and argumentation theory. Pragma-dialectics (including argument scheme and structure) shapes the argumentative parcel, while the notion of narrative coherence, with reference to Ricoeur’s configuration, builds the narrative component. The framework is tested on an English translation of a Rumi’s chapter in his major book <em>Fihi Ma Fihi </em>(<em>Discourses of Rumi</em>). The findings show that the framework, as a multifaceted TQA instrument, can functionally process arguments in narratives.</p> Mohammad Ali Kharmandar, Amin Karimnia Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 30 Aug 2019 10:24:14 +0430 A Model for Crowdsourcing Development of Databases for Qur’anic Studies Sources <p>Technology has become an integral part of the translation task. Nevertheless, few translation memories and term bases are available for translating Qur’anic Studies sources. Without them, attaining maximum efficiency in this field is not possible because such tools facilitate decision-making in the translation process from/into Persian. There is an imperative need for developing such databases. Creating parallel corpora and aligning them to come up with translation memories and term banks can help improve the quantity and quality of translations of Qur’anic Studies sources from/into Persian. However, this task cannot be carried out by a single person. Using crowdsourcing in developing TMs and TBs for Qur’anic Studies sources is an alternative that can expedite the task. Nonetheless, crowdsourcing in developing such databases is a relatively unattended research area. Examining existing models revealed that no pre-existing Translation Studies model suited the needs of this study. With the motive of filling this gap, the researchers opted for developing and validating a model for human resource management in Translation Studies through adopting a crowdsourcing model (the Metropolis Model) and adapting it for their specific conditions (developingthe Jāmiʿ model). Findings of this research indicate that the Jāmiʿ Model is adequate for developing TMs and TBs.</p> Hussein Mollanazar, Akram Tayyebi Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 30 Aug 2019 10:14:22 +0430 Translation, Modernization and Enlightenment: The Qajar Translation Movement <p>This paper investigates the role of translation in the socio-political changes in Iran under the Qajars ruling over the country from 1789 to 1925. It primarily covers the 1807–1906 time period—from the initiation of the translation movement around 1807 in the reign of Fath Ali Shah to the proclamation of the Iranian Constitution in 1906 in the reign of Mozaffar al-Din Shah. The paper, as a microhistorical research, argues that translation contributed to the launch of modernization projects through introducing Western sciences and technologies as well as expanding modern education. At the same time, it played a major role in raising Iranians’ awareness, inspiring political campaigns and promoting ethical values, which ultimately paved the way for the Iranian Constitutional Revolution in 1906.</p> Farzaneh Farahzad, Somayeh Adili Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 30 Aug 2019 10:06:50 +0430 Semantic Strategy: A Dominant Method in Translating Iltifat in Three English Translations of the Quran <p>This essay is an investigation into the translation of reference switch “Iltifat” and its types, in three English translations of the Quran. The essay shows that semantic translation method is the most frequently used strategy with regard to the translation of different types of Iltifat. The study’s main concern is the challenges with which a translator may confront in translating Iltifat. An Iltifat has different kinds of which a shift in the use of pronouns is the most frequently used in the Quran. In order to present an analytical description of how different types of Iltifat are translated, the theoretical framework of the study or an introduction of translation methods is presented at first. Then, the main theories, especially, the two translation methods by Newmark (1988), namely, communicative and semantic translations, are defined. Third, data collection procedures are presented; the data has been extracted from a thorough examination of four verses in which Iltifat has been used. The verses were selected and analyzed from different suras of the three English Quran translations: Yusuf Ali (1934), Pickthall (1930) and Arberry (1955). Careful analysis of the selected translated verses indicates that all three translators have tried to make use of semantic translation method and its range as the most frequently used method to remain faithful to the original. Translators’ use of this translation method may account, on the one hand, for the importance of the original text, but it could also be an indicator of the translators’ partiality and ideology.</p> Abolfazl Horri Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 30 Aug 2019 09:53:07 +0430 Paratextual Visibility: A Case of Footnotes Used by the Iranian Fiction Translators <p>In the past few years, scholars have redirected the research path to a new and promising avenue wherein translator’s visibility is explored from paratexts rather than from the translations, highlighting the pivotal role and the position of translators as key agents in translation process. This article investigated the paratextual visibility of Iranian fiction translators by the examination of their footnotes to unveil the traces of translators’ self-expressions and reveal their rationales for choosing a particular translation technique. The analysis comprises footnotes of 300 English to Persian translated fictions. Data analysis resulted in a categorization of footnotes: transliteration, explanatory + transliteration, explanatory, translational, referential. A small number of footnotes were concerned with translation issue mainly revolving around mere equivalents between languages. Overall, it was found that although footnotes could be counted a precious place for translators to highlight their presence, Iranian fiction translators were less inclined to talk about their translation process and its challenges.</p> Ameneh Yari, Zahra Amirian, Mohammad Amiryousefi Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Sat, 06 Jul 2019 17:55:39 +0430 A Meta-analytical Critique of Antoine Berman’s Retranslation Hypothesis <p>The present article addresses the validity of Berman’s Retranslation Hypothesis (which posits that literary retranslations are closer to the original than first translations) through a systematic, meta-analytical investigation of the empirical studies conducted to the present day on this topic. To this end, a representative sample of the empirical studies regarding RH over the past three decades was collected. The list contained fourteen studies carried out in different settings and between different language-pairs. The results of the meta-analysis demonstrated that empirical data has failed to confirm RH as roughly 60% of the studies have refuted it while the remaining 40% have lent support to it. Furthermore, the results illustrated that all the studies conducted shared one finding: apart from ‘ageing’ of the translations, there are more important motivations giving rise to retranslation including source and target literary norms, translational norms, ideology, socio-political relations, translators’ attitude and experience, and so forth. The meta-analysis conducted also revealed that Berman has apparently overlooked the influence of two important factors in the formation of retranslations: text type, and the potentials of multiple (re)interpretations of texts. In light of the data, his claim that retranslations occur because first translations are ‘incomplete’ also faces serious challenges.</p> Mir Saeed Mousavi Razavi, Sajjad Tahmasbi Boveiri Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Sat, 06 Jul 2019 17:42:01 +0430 The Effects of the Court’s Patronage on the Selection of Books for Translation in the State Translation Bureau <p>This study explored the works translated in the State Translation Bureau at the time Nasser al-Din Shah Ghajar ruled in Iran. The aim was to explore the Court’s role in the selection of books for translation. To do so, libraries and online data banks were searched to prepare the list of books translated in the Bureau, and then, within the framework of Lefevere’s Patronage Theory, the Shah’s support for the translation of certain works and his negligence for certain other works were analyzed. The works on the list were categorized into travel writing, newspaper articles, history, literature, politics, geography, science, military texts, economy and others. The Shah’s interests and the need he felt for the translation of certain works as well as attempts made by the chairman of the Bureau to inform the Shah were found to be the most important factors influencing the selection of works for translation. The largest number of translated books belonged to the categories of travel writing, newspaper articles and history. In addition, books of literature, politics, geography, science and military tactics were also translated considerably. However, few books were translated in areas such as economy and agriculture, and no books were selected for translation in those areas for which the Shah felt no need, or which he opposed seriously. The non-selection of works was evaluated as relevant to the Shah’s unwillingness for reform and changes in the status quo.</p> Mazdak Bolouri, Mehdi Mirkiaei Copyright (c) Sat, 06 Jul 2019 10:18:47 +0430 Errors in Machine Translated and Crowdsourced Post-Edited Texts <p>The initial objective of the present study was to identify the most and the least frequent error types in Google Translate (GT) raw outputs and the crowd(sourced) post-edited versions according to Vilar et al.’s (2006) typology. The second objective was to compare the results of error analysis between both outputs in order to address the significance of the decrease in the number of errors in post-edited texts. To this end, four English sports news texts were uploaded on Google Translator Toolkit (GTT), which is an online collaborative environment for post-editing the automatic translations rendered by GT. Subsequently, eleven M.A. students of translation studies which were categorized as unprofessional translators were invited to the online environment via email to modify the machine translations. Results of the error analysis revealed that the two categories of Incorrect Words and Unknown Words were respectively the most and the least frequent error types in both outputs. The study also showed less than fifty percent decrease in the number of errors in post-edited texts. However, some effective factors for improving the quality of crowd(sourced) post-edited outputs and the applicability of GTT were investigated based on the collected literature, an online interview with participants and the researchers’ own observations.</p> Farzaneh Farahzad, Seyedsina Mirarabshahi Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 05 Jul 2019 12:46:53 +0430 An Efficient Method to Add Chunker Rules in Persian to English Rule-based Apertium Machine Translation System <p>Rule-based machine translation (RBMT) captures linguistic information about the source and target languages. This information is retrieved from (bilingual) dictionaries and grammar rules. This paper proposes an active learning (AL) method to grow structural transfer rules at the chunker level. To this end, two sets of experiments are performed based on two types of sentences extracted from Mizan English-Persian Parallel Corpus which are selected manually and randomly. The results show adding newly written chunker rules to the transformation file using pool-based AL technique improves translation system more compared to a random chunker rule selection baseline.</p> Pariya Razmdideh, Abbas Ali Ahangar, Seyed Mojtaba Sabbagh-Jafari, Gholamreza Haffari Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 05 Jul 2019 12:34:18 +0430 A Marxist Critique of Postcolonial Translation Studies <p>Postcolonial Translation Studies has been among the prominent trends in the field during the past three decades. This wide-ranging interest in postcolonial investigations of translation has been so significant that Petterson (1999) identifies “the postcolonial turn” in Translation Studies. Postcolonial approaches in Translation Studies have a twofold purpose: firstly, to investigate the effects of power imbalances in transcultural communications on translation process and product, and, secondly, to find ways in which “translation might contribute to exposing, challenging and decolonizing the legacy of colonialism and various forms of neo-colonialism in a postcolonial era” (Hui, 2013, p. 200). Another field which is engaged with the problem of power imbalances among different societies is Marxism. Marxism and postcolonial studies have both claimed to be anticolonial movements, but Marxists have been critical of postcolonial studies approach to colonialism. The present study tried to use critical perspectives provided by Marxism to see whether postcolonial Translation Studies have been contributive to the campaign against (neo)colonial exploitation of the colonized people or not. The results show that postcolonial Translation Studies has ignored the importance of Capitalism in analyzing translation in colonial and postcolonial situation. Furthermore, it is shown that the resistance strategies adapted in postcolonial translation have little significant result in the Real world.</p> Hussein Mollanazar, Saeed Fuladi Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 05 Jul 2019 11:59:56 +0430 The Role of Translation in Debut of Theatre on Iranian Stage and Evolution of Contemporary Persian Drama <p>Evolution of contemporary Persian drama was not without a historical background. The Iranians were acquainted with<em> dramatic conversations</em> and <em>performances</em>, the indispensable elements of theatre. From among the Inranian traditional performances it was <em>Ta’zieh</em> which could deviate from its ritual path. Developed from a simple public mourning into a full-fledged national drama, <em>Ta’zieh</em>’s theatrical aspects increased; though in Qajar period the way was paved for <em>Tazieh</em> to evolve into a national theatre, it was not promoted to that position. Social and political changes under the Constitutional Revolution shaped a new order in the Iraninan society. With reshaping of the Iranian socio-cultural polysystem the young domestic model of drama (<em>Ta’zieh</em>) was shuned by influential social classes, pushed to periphery and a foreign model (<em>Theatre</em>) was adopted. In this process translation assumed a central position. Applying polysystem theory, this study is an attempt to investigate the role and position of translation in the process of the evolution of contemporary Persian drama. To this aim, after surveying the Iranian’s familiarity with dramatic conversations and the art of performance and their paths to developing into dramatic literature, the influential people, texts, events and trends which in specific historical moments paved the way for the evolution of contemporary Persian drama were accounted.</p> Mostafa Ahmadi Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 05 Jul 2019 11:47:16 +0430 Policy, Planning, and Translation in the Islamic Republic of Iran <p>The dissolution of the Soviet Union signaled the end of crackdown on Islam in the newly independent Republic of Azerbaijan. This created a space for major Muslim countries, especially Iran, to attempt to revive Islam in the secularized society through the supply of translated religious literature, among other means. Assuming this to be an act of culture planning, the present paper aims to study the Iranian culture planning through translation in post‑Soviet Azerbaijan. Using a bibliography of religious literature translated into Azerbaijani and published in Iran, an attempt is made to explore this case by analyzing the agents involved (translators and publishers), the titles translated and their intended functions, and the policies that guided this culture planning endeavor. We argue that the post-revolutionary Iranian (foreign) cultural policy of ‘Islamization’ was the guiding force behind the activity, which was primarily carried out by mostly (semi‑)private publishers and anonymous translators.</p> Gholam-Reza Tajvidi, Ehsan Alipour Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 23 May 2019 12:51:54 +0430 Methods Employed in Rendering Metonymy in the Ancient Translations of the Holy Qur'an: The Case of Tabari, Meybodi and Abul-Futouh Razi <p>Familiarity with the techniques of rhetoric and the recognition of metonymy and its different kinds is one of the important issues in the translation of the Holy Qur'an. Therefore, in this paper, first, the method of examining the translation of the Qur'an and metonymy and its kinds is discussed, and then based on the deductive-inductive method, by mentioning evidence from the individual authorized metonymy of the ten second parts (joz') of the Holy Qur'an, the methods of their rendering in the three ancient Quranic translations (Tabari, Meybodi and Abul-Futouh Razi) have been investigated. According to the findings of the study and its analysis, the results indicate: the mentioned translators have not followed the same methods in rendering authorized metonymy. They have used various methods of translation, such as literal, content-wise, and interpretive translation in conveying the meaning of metonymy to the audience. Tabari and Abul-Futouh Razi have followed mostly literal translation. But Meybodi has had the most content-wise translation in rendering metonymy.</p> Zahra Mohammadi, Simin Valavi Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 23 May 2019 12:41:53 +0430 Nezami Ganjavi's Word-selection Art in Translating Scientific <p>In the field of Islamic-Iranian civilization, the educated made more effort for transferring culture and knowledge; especially from the 3<sup>rd</sup>to 6<sup>th</sup>century AH linguistic sciences and translation of scientific works boomed. Nezami in translating into Persian language has a privileged position. Using scientific approaches to word building, he has provided great services to the Persian language.</p> <p>Using content analysis method, the author reviewed Nezami's <em>Khamsah</em> to answer this fundamental question: what methods has Nezami utilized in translating <em>hapax legomena</em> and Arabic-Persian compounds, and how successful was he in this way? After the review, one can point out three methods of Nezami in the process of translation: equivalents with the combination of common words in Persian language, translation with the combination of Arabic and Persian word, and word-by-word translation. Sometimes he has not translated the word or compound at all; and this is true more of canonical and legal terms. Nezami's good way in translating is the building of new words in translation, which he himself claimed to have.</p> Giti Faraji, Ali Mohammad Poshtdar Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 23 May 2019 12:26:08 +0430 Representation of Religious Identity in the Persian Translations of the Power and the Glory in the Pre- and Post-Islamic Revolution of Iran <p>The narrative theory has entered the domain of Translation Studies via Baker`s well-known book <em>Narrative and Conflict</em> (2006). Baker introduced the the model of narrative analysis for investigating identity constitution as a part of social reality construction in narratives and their translations across languages and cultures. Likewise, the present study investigated the representation of religious identity in the Persian translations of <em>the Power and the Glory</em> (Greene, 1946) in the pre- and post-Islamic Revolution eras in Iran. In so doing, Baker`s model (2006) was applied, by which the translations and the original text were analyzed at both micro-and macro-levels. The results of the study revealed that the protagonist`s religious identity was represented in accordance with the Christian and Western values and terms in the pre-Islamic Revolution Persian translation. However, his identity was misrepresented in the post-Islamic Revolution Persian translation as it was done in consensus with the Islamic values and terms. Finally, it was concluded that the TT1 served the dissemination of the foreign social reality in the Iranian society, while the TT2 intentionally manipulated the original social reality to diffuse the system`s preferred reality in the Islamic society of Iran.</p> Salar Manafi Anari, Sirvan Aminzadeh Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 23 May 2019 08:24:36 +0430 Narratives of Nationalism in Paratexts <p>Focusing on the social function of translation, this study uses Niklas Luhmann’s (1995) social systems theory to investigate how, despite the translation of western viewpoints, the Iranian socio-political system seeks to maintain its position against these perspectives. To this end, four English books written by western authors about the Iran-Iraq war were selected and the paratextual reactions of the publisher to the western narratives were analyzed. Translation as a boundary phenomenon not only opens the Iranian system to different ideological perspectives about the war but also it is utilized to respond to the west’s dissenting ideological narratives about it. The paratextual space of the Persian translations studied here abounds in opposing narratives that challenge the western ideas about the war. These dissenting narratives which reflect a part of the ongoing ideological and discursive clashes between Iran and the west manifest the Iranian socio-political system’s attempt to draw a distinction between itself and its ideological rival and, therefore, to secure its own position against the other. The role of the paratextual materials of the Persian translations in distinguishing the Iranian socio-political system from the western one and in bolstering the prevailing nationalist accounts of the Iran-Iraq war becomes evident in this study.</p> Reza Yalsharzeh Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 23 May 2019 08:14:05 +0430 On Lexical Borrowing in Translation of English Novels into Persian <p>Literary texts and so novels are loaded with culture-bound items. Since novels deal with human experiences and different aspects of the life such as personal and social aspects, they usually are loaded with culture-related concepts which can be considered as perfect candidates for borrowing during translation process. Thus, it can be asserted that borrowing is commonly used by literary translator in order to overcome the cultural and linguistic differences between the source text and the target text. The present study draws on the notion of lexical borrowing in the translation of English novels into Persian in order to detect whether there are changes made to the spelling and pronunciation of the borrowed items in the translated Persian novels under study compared to their original versions. It further intends to explore lexical borrowing in novels translated from English into Persian and find out what semantic fields are more open to borrowing than others.</p> Helia Vaezian, Adeleh Izadan Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 23 May 2019 08:04:52 +0430 Introducing a Model for Analyzing the Position of Translation Service Quality in Iran from the Customer Perspective <p>The main purpose of this study was to propose a model analyzing the position of translation service quality in Iran from the customers’ perspective based on SERVQUAL model in translation agencies in Mashhad and Tehran. For this purpose, AMOS software was applied to model the structural equations. The research was conducted with a sample size of 60 experts (20 academic experts and 40 customers of translation services). The proposed model was also developed based on various clusters. The results showed that the factor correlation between “cluster of translation agency quality in non-literary translation projects in language pair English-Persian” and “cluster of translator quality” was reported 0.936 based on the structural loadings of confirmatory factor analysis. Moreover, the factor correlation between “cluster of translation agency quality in non-literary translation projects in language pair English-Persian” and “cluster of service quality for customers” was reported 0.521 based on the structural loadings of confirmatory factor analysis. Finally, the factor correlation between “quality analysis of translation services” and “cluster of service quality for customers” was reported 0.566 based on the structural loadings of confirmatory factor analysis. Overall, the results showed the good fitting of the proposed model and thus validated the model as a tool for evaluating translation service quality in the field.</p> Salar Manafi Anari, Elaheh Kianian Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 23 May 2019 00:00:00 +0430 Text-Image Interactions in Translated Comics <p>In children’s books meaning is communicated through the interaction of both the visual and the verbal elements. The present study thus attempts to examine whether text-image interactions in children’s books undergo any change in the process of translation. To this end, a corpus of 24 English comics along with their Persian translations was developed. Then relying on McCloud’s (1994) typology of text-image interactions, the selected English text-image pairs were compared with their corresponding pairs in Persian in search of any change. The results of the study revealed that changes in texts or in images gave rise to changes in text-image interactions in almost half of the cases examined (46%). This means that since different elements in children books are connected and it is through their cooperation that meaning is conveyed, any change in one element may effect a greater change at a different level and may affect the communication of the message.</p> Fatemeh Parham, Zahra Hossein Tabrizi Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 03 Jan 2019 08:54:42 +0330 Spatial Territories in Translation Studies <p>Space-driven concepts have always been present in Translation Studies. Translation has been historically viewed as a movement between source and target language/text and the field is replete of space-bound metaphors such as “translation as transfer” and “the landscape of translation”. Space in the current study was taken in its Lefebvrian sense, defined as a social construct and identified, among others, as being relational, multiple and dynamic. Therefore, not all views that draw on space would be considered as a spatial theory on translation and those theories that employ static space were excluded from this study. Upon critical analysis of theories on translation, four space-driven strands of conceptualization have been identified, namely, translation space, translation and urban space, translation and geography and translation and ecology; all based on interdisciplinary dialogue. Each of these strands introduced a new arena for studying translation though incorporating a similar episteme. Through mapping spatial theories of Translation Studies, the current positioning and future tendencies of the field would become more vivid.</p> Farzaneh Farahzad, Samar Ehteshami Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 03 Jan 2019 08:36:19 +0330 Paratranslation and Image Schemas in the Quranic Translation: Mental Spaces <p>Although translation itself is a cognitive process, translation from cognitive view is new. There exist many aspects in the translations of the Holy Quran which have been added to the original text. These aspects are diverse, different and can be classified on the wide spectrum. It is very difficult to justify them based on equivalence or many theories of translation. But, mental spaces and their internal structure, namely image schemas, can give us an effective tool how and why these elements appear in the text. It is even possible to predict which elements may be added to the text if we consider frames related to the verse. According to mental spaces theory and their internal structures these elements are viewed as prompts for activating a frame or frames relevant to the interpretation of the original text, historical origin or so. The translators each have activated one or more aspects of the frame for conceptualization. Comparing the translations reveal that these elements activate the same mental spaces.</p> Abolfazl Mosaffa Jahromi Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 03 Jan 2019 08:24:44 +0330 A Curious Case of Taboo Rendition in Persian AVT <p>The pace of technological evolution, with particular reference to mass media outlets like films, has become so fast in recent years. Such rapid progress made audiovisual translation (AVT) a hot topic. This study aims to investigate the impact of local cultural norms and translators’ hiring institutions policies on Persian audiovisual translators’ decisions in case of taboo translation. In this paper, three translations of the film named <em>I, Daniel Blake </em>were analyzed. The translation corpus included an Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) dubbed version, a subtitle used by an authorized private video on demand (VOD) company and finally a fansubbed version. The theoretical framework of the current study was based on Sharifi and Darchinian’s (2009) classification of taboo interpretation in contemporary Iran and Khoshsaligheh and Ameri’s (2014) model for taboo translation. The results depicted that taboo translation in Persian AVT represent an ideological spectrum going from one extreme to its opposite. This complete range of decisions in Persian AVT truly reflects a famous dichotomy in translation i.e. <em>Domestication</em> and <em>Foreignization</em>.</p> Behnam Rezvani Sichani, Mahmoud Afrouz Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 03 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0330 An Analysis of the Self-Regulatory Strategies Used by Iranian English-Persian Translators in Translation Process <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Self-regulation is considered as self-generated ideas and actions, which are directed towards achieving academic objectives (Cleary &amp; Zimmerman, 2004). The purpose of this mixed-method study was to investigate the English-Persian translators’ perception and use of self-regulatory strategies in translation process. To that end, three research phases were designed. In the first phase, 42 male and female translators were requested to participate in a semi-structured interview designed based on Pintrich’s (2004) model of self-regulation. In second phase of the study, 20 translators were requested to translate sample texts and participate in introspective and retrospective think-aloud protocols. Then, the data from think-aloud protocols and retrospective interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Based on the recurrent themes, a five-point Likert-scale questionnaire on self-regulation strategies of English-Persian translators was developed. This 31-item questionnaire was composed of three sub-sections. In the quantitative phase of this study, thirty English-Persian translators were selected through purposive sampling and invited to answer the questionnaire, thereby self-reporting their use of self-regulatory strategies in translation process. Finally, the results revealed that English-Persian translators ignored motivational, affective, contextual phases of self-regulation to a large extent, and might approach translation process only as a cognitive process. The findings of this study offer implications for translators and translation programs. </span></p> Seyyed Amir Hossein Sarkeshikian, Seyyed Abdol-Majid Tabatabaee, Mohadeseh Asghari Copyright (c) 2018 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 20 Dec 2018 09:44:28 +0330 Intrasystemic Function of Translated Political Works in Iranian Society <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The present paper analyzes the political purposes behind translating political works into Persian under the Reformist administration in Iran in order to investigate the social function of translation. First, the translated political books about international relations that had been initially published from 2001 until the end of the Reformist administration (2005/08/03) were retrieved from a bibliographic database. They were then examined paratextually in terms of the cover blurbs, translators’ prefaces, publishers’ notes, and notes by other agents. In paratextual examinations, some references to the political purposes behind translating the works were found. Out of 74 identified translations, 10 volumes had been translated with political purposes. The paratextual evidence about the political purposes was provided case-by-case. Finally, the social function of translation within the Iranian society during the period was discussed based on Luhmann’s social systems theory as applied to translation studies by Tyulenev (2012a). </span></p> Parviz Rassouli Copyright (c) 2018 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 20 Dec 2018 09:39:00 +0330 Recurrent Vs. Convolutional Neural Machine Translation: Translating Persian Verbal Inflections into English <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This study seeks to investigate the effectiveness of the rather new neural approach to machine translation with regard to contextual translation of Persian past tense verbal inflections (in pro-drop cases) into English. To this aim, the performance of the major architectures of neural machine translation, recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs), was analyzed and compared based on Waddington's (2003) holistic assessment method. Furthermore, the main source of errors made by the representatives of the RNN and CNN systems, Google Translate and Facebook respectively, was identified. Upon analyzing a sample chosen from the famous Persian Novel, "Modir-e Madrese" by Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, it became evident that the performance of both machine translation systems was adequate, with Facebook outperforming Google Translate. Moreover, rendering of neutral Persian singular third-person inflections into gendered English subject pronouns was found to be the main source of errors made by the two machine translation systems.</span><br><br></p> Sajedeh Sadat Hosseini Copyright (c) Thu, 20 Dec 2018 09:33:17 +0330 A Study of Nicholson's Translation of Idioms in the Text of Mathnawi: A Housian Approach <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Juliane House introduces a considerable pattern used in translation of literary (non-scientific) texts. In her theory, House classifies translation into two major types: </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Overt</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> and </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Covert</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">. She believes that the overt method is appropriate for translating the culture-bound texts, and leads to translations that contain unfamiliar and alien cultural elements, in which the trace of translator is completely obvious, while the covert one is most suitable for non-culture driven texts and concludes to highly domesticated translations within which the trace of translator is not clear. Moreover, according to House’s theory the overt method cannot establish </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">functional equivalence</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">, while within the covert approach, maintaining such an equivalence is possible. The goal of this descriptive-analytic paper is to show Nicholson’s tendency to each of the two mentioned strategies in translating the idioms of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Mathnawi</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> into English. The results of this research revealed that the translator’s major tendency has been toward overt translation, which caused to maintaining the accuracy of translation as well as conveying the aesthetic aspects of the source text to the target text.</span></p> Reza Abbasi, Aliakbar Khomeyjani Farahani, Behrooz Mahmoodi Bakhtiari Copyright (c) Thu, 20 Dec 2018 09:19:05 +0330 EVS Patterns, Regulation Strategies and Quality of Persian/English Simultaneous Interpretations <p>A mind-boggling obsession facing the recent interpreting studies is the how and why of ear-voice-span (EVS) regulation during simultaneous interpreting (SI) and its relationship with the quality of SI outputs especially in the case of two asymmetrical languages. The present case study aimed at investigating the EVS patterns and strategies used during Persian-to-English (henceforth P-E) (SOV-SVO) and English-to-Persian (henceforth E-P) (SVO-SOV) SI. Moreover, it sought to find out the relationship between EVS choices and quality of simultaneous interpretations. In doing so, live data were collected from a professional interpreter in two interlingually held conferences. The analysis of transcribed and synchronized audio files revealed the adoption of a wide range of linguistic and temporal EVS choices and regulation strategies. The results indicated that EVS patterns in the SOV-to-SVO direction were generally longer than vice versa. The quality assessment of interpretations by two raters with reference to Buhler's (1986) rating scale revealed that the choice of EVS strategies had a direct impact on the overall EVS length, imposed cognitive demand and, subsequently, quality of interpretations. On implication side, the study suggests the incorporation of detected strategies into the interpreter training syllabus.</p> Karim Shabani, Parima Khazaei Copyright (c) Fri, 07 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0430 A Survey of the Translation of Imam Hossein's Divan in the Base of Saving the Main Meaning <p>One of the best methods in analyzing the variables of a literature work is criticizing that work in the base of its main meaning. Imam Hossein's divan as a poetic sample, having an instructive descriptions and contents translated to Persian language by Amir Jabery. In this article with qualitative method and by considering the main meaning in translation attempted to analyze the methodology of the translator and the way of expressing themes and also content criticizing of <em>Imam Hossein's divan</em>. The result of this article shows that the translator in the area that is related to literary method of the sentences, debates, and transferring the meaning has an acceptable performance. But in expressing the meaning of the poems by literal translation in the target language and choosing accurate synonyms for the words and vocabularies some errors and slips are seen in his translation.</p> Hasan Esmailzadeh, Siyamak Asgharpour, Hadi Fazlinejadi Copyright (c) Fri, 07 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Resistance in Translations Published as White-Cover Books <p>The present study was an attempt to find out how the activist Persian translations published illegally as White-Cover books were resistant to the target culture. The study was based on Baker’s (2006) argument about where to look for the activist translators’ political work, i.e., the text selection and framing methods, including paratexts, timing of release, and place of release. For the study of the paratexts, Pellatt’s (2013) typology was adapted to cover all the paratextual elements included in the corpus. The study showed that resistance was manifest in all the areas examined, but in different forms. Resistance to censorship was more evident in the text selection and the non-verbal paratexts, whereas resistance to the dominant ideologies and the state was more visible in the verbal paratexts, especially in the prefatorial materials as well as the inclusion or exclusion of the names of the translators.</p> Hussein Mollanazar, Roya Ghaderi Copyright (c) Fri, 07 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Discourse Differences in the Theories of Untranslatability of the Holy Qur’ān <p>Translation of the <em>Qur’</em><em>ā</em><em>n</em> has always had its own opponents and proponents. Some scholars have held that translation of the <em>Qur’</em><em>ā</em><em>n</em> originates from the very age of the holy Prophet. Some others have considered the <em>Qur’</em><em>ā</em><em>n</em> untranslatable. Regardless of the arguments of the two groups, discourses prevalent in the society have had their own influence in raising these views. These influences have sometimes been affirmative. However, in most cases, they have been in contrast to another discourse, hence negative and defensive. Discourses in the 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> centuries were mostly jurisprudential and theological. In contrast, in the 14<sup>th</sup> century, sectarian and socio-political discourses predominated due to the wide cultural and ideological challenges towards Muslims. Emergence of the view holding untranslatability of the <em>Qur’</em><em>ā</em><em>n</em> based on different discourse approaches can be emanated from different sociological and contextual factors of these two ages. Concentrating on maintaining the verbal form of the <em>Qur’</em><em>ā</em><em>n</em> for conveying its meanings, concern over instrumental use of translation, and finally, the duty of safeguarding religion gave rise to presentation of the theory of untranslatability of the <em>Qur’</em><em>ā</em><em>n</em> by Muslim scholars in order to prevent religious deviations.</p> Mahmoud Karimi, Hosein Shojaei, Mohammad Alimohammadi Copyright (c) Thu, 06 Sep 2018 21:49:25 +0430 Paratextual elements in Translation: Study of a novel of Goli Taraghi <p>Paratexutal elements, especially on the cover of a book, play an important role in shaping the reader’s horizons of expectation of a literary work. Therefore, when it comes to translating, it is important to study the relations between these elements and the atmosphere of the book. In addition, paratextual elements on the cover of a book are considered the first and most effective part of a literary work that is related to the reader’s social and cultural world. Hence, translation of a book from a language into another language is actually the transition of a book from a linguistic-spatial-cultural fact into another linguistic-spatial-cultural reality and when a literary work is translated, these elements undergo various changes.</p> <p>After providing some explanations on the paratext, its position in representing the atmosphere of a work, as well as its relation with the concepts of a culture, the present article aims to study the changes made in the paratextual elements of a novel written by Goli Taraghi, “Scattered Memories”, and its translation into French.</p> Mina Mazhari, Marjan Farjah Copyright (c) Thu, 06 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Knowledge of Persian in English Translator Training Major: Importance, Status quo, and Recommendations for Improvement <p>Considering the ever-increasing communication among nations and the ensuing need for international relations in cultural, political and economic arenas, growing need for translators and interpreters has become more obvious, leading to the formation of translator training courses in different countries. Iran has also been active in this area for more than two decades. Yet, a pressing problem that may act as a possible factor to inhibit the course and lead to production of low quality translations and translators is a severe lack of lettered knowledge of Persian in translation students along with the ignorance of some trainers in that regard. These may contribute negatively to the aims of translator training programmes. The present paper, therefore, discusses the importance of a lettered knowledge of Persian, the first language of trainees, and then analyses the results of a questionnaire sent to translator trainers that tries to elicit relevant information. Finally, both old and new translator training curricula are scrutinised to come up with some ideas for improvement in that area, intending to contribute to the overall quality of the translator training programme.</p> Reza Rezaei Copyright (c) Wed, 29 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0430 The Impact of Gender-based Ideological Perspective of Translators on Translations of the Holy Qur’an In the translation of Qur’anic verses, lexical choices can illustrate gender ideologies of translators and, consequently, change the attitude of individuals towards Islam and the status of women in Islam. The purpose of this study is investigating the impact of the gender-based ideological perspective of translators with different orientations in translating women-related verses. Since most of the Qur’an translators have been men, this research seeks to determine the extent of the impact of patriarchal ideology in translating some verses of the Qur'an. In this regard, two Persian translations of the Holy Qur'an were selected, one translated by a female translator and one by a male translator. Also three English translations of some verses related to women in the four surahs of Nisa, Al-Ahzab, Noor and Mumtahanah, translated by an Iranian woman and male translators with Eastern and Western orientations in their translation of woman-related verses. The translations were analyzed based on the model of critical translation analysis proposed by Khanjan (2011). The results showed that gender ideology of translators can consciously and unconsciously affect their translations. Although translators have translated accurately, their translations depict their conception of man from the Word of God. Gender ideology, prevailing social views and the translator’s conception of men and women, unconsciously affects the translator’s thoughts, beliefs, and lexical choices. Translators’ error in the translation of religious texts is a possibility but it is better that readers consider translation errors a probability. Azadeh Eriss, Mohammad Reza Hashemi Copyright (c) Thu, 02 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0430 The Impact of Translation on the Culture and National Identity of Iranian Turks in Iran With the emergence of postcolonial theories in Translation Studies in 1990s, translation became a tool for both colonization and decolonization. Previously, translation was considered as a marginal act and copy of the original. However, postcolonial theories indicated that translation is a political act for revitalization and preservation of culture and identity, especially minority identities. After the victory of Islamic Revolution, translation into (Iran) Turkish language began, the number of which is growing every year. In order to investigate the impact of translation on the culture and national identity of Iranian Turks, the data related to the number of books translated into (Iran) Turkish language were collected. The results indicated that translation has had a significant role in preserving Turkish identity in Iran and resisting against cultural assimilation. Behruz Bekbabayi, Ehsan Amirzadeh Copyright (c) Thu, 02 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Student Trainees’ Performance in Simultaneous Interpreting Aptitude Test: The Role of Emotional Quotient and Self-Efficacy The present study investigated the possible relation between student trainees’ performance in simultaneous interpreting aptitude test, EQ and self-efficacy. A sample of 70 interpreting trainees participated in this study. The Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On, 1997) and the self-efficacy questionnaire (Sherer et al., 1982) were administered. The results showed that simultaneous interpreting was not a gender sensitive activity. However, the findings demonstrated that higher self-efficacy improved performance in SI aptitude test. Moreover, the study revealed a positive correlation between EQ (total and its 12 subscales) and self-efficacy. Additionally, three of the subscales of EQ (i.e. Flexibility, Self-Respect and Stress Tolerance) were found to function as positive predictors of SI aptitude score. The study concluded that learning interpreting skills in and by itself does not necessarily result in successful interpreting because of personal differences. Gholam-Reza Tajvidi, Sima Ferdowsi Copyright (c) Thu, 02 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Methods and Strategies of Translating Ambiguity in Literary Texts Ambiguity is a literary device used by poets to achieve multiple meanings by using only a few words. Hafiz is for sure one of the main figures and stars in Persian literary firmament known for having used this literary device in his poetry. The study aims at analyzing the concept of ambiguity in the Divan of Hafiz and its German and English translations in order to present a practical model for rendering this figure of speech. To analyze the collected data, first, the couplets containing ambiguous elements were detected in the Divan, then, the English and German translations of each couplet were identified. Subsequently, the methods being employed in rendering ambiguous elements were determined and compared. The efficiency of the procedures was also discussed. The findings demonstrated that literal translation was the most frequently employed procedure by the English translator, while the German translators had mostly adopted ‘sense for sense’. Although being an important strategy, ‘preservation’ is quite limited in use because of the linguistic differences. It was proved that from among the three strategies being employed by the Divan translators, ‘amplification’ can best assist translators to cope properly with the challenge of translating ambiguous elements. Although not being employed by translators, ‘compensation’ can be a practical strategy for the reproduction of the ST aesthetic features. Mahmoud Afrouz, Morteza Sabourzadeh Copyright (c) Thu, 02 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Translating the Other in American Animations The present research was an attempt to explore the strategies employed by the translators and the dubbing team to translate the Other’s culture. Aixelá (1996) and Corrius and Zabalbeascoa’s (2011) frameworks were modified to analyze the Other’s elements and the third language. Regarding translation of Otherness, the tendency was standardizing of the third language and softening the Other’s references in the animation movies. Totally, dubbing is considered to be a means to nationalize the Other, however due to the numerous visual references it is not fully accomplished. Some creative solutions were detected in Persian dubbed versions for translating the third language including using L2 regional/social accent and L4 (fabricated accents/dialects). Hussein Mollanazar, Hamideh Nemati Lafmejani Copyright (c) Thu, 02 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Visually or Verbally Postmodern? A Study of Translated Picture Books One peculiar feature of picture books is the role they ascribe to pictures as part of the narrative, leading to diverse patterns of interaction between texts and illustrations. Postmodern authors, illustrators, and translators benefit from this text-image interaction to break the common frames and conventions of picture books. The present study attempts to identify the postmodern features of picture books by developing a comprehensive model of these features. It then focuses on Persian translated picture books with postmodern influences to decide on the nature of these features and to classify them as realized through the visual channel, the verbal channel, the layout or a combination of these channels. Fatemeh Parham Copyright (c) Thu, 02 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Zabihollah Mansouri and the Enigma of Pseudotranslating Zabihollah Mansouri’s translations have stirred up heated debates among scholars and critics for more than half a century as for authenticity and fidelity, to the extent that some have imparted these texts with authorship in the guise of translation, i.e., pseudotranslation. This study is to present a classification of Mansouri’ books which are catalogued and received as translation based on the alleged sources and elucidate his oeuvre against the contours of pseudotranslation as presented by scholars, particularly those specified by Toury (1995). Accordingly, it is shown that form among the various types of translations classified, only those falling within translation proper and adaptation proper can enjoy the status of translation. The various other translations in his translation bibliography, i.e., those which cannot be tracked down to a specific source text or else are modeled on a number of texts are in step with pseudotranslation criteria. Kambiz Mahmoodzadeh, Mahdi Vahedikia Copyright (c) Thu, 02 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0430 A Bourdieusian Perspective on Translator Training: Sociological Reflections and Implications The advent of sociological turn in Translation Studies has yet less been felt in translation pedagogy. An immensely influential sociology already informing translation (studies) is that of Pierre Bourdieu's. From the perspective of Bourdieu's concept of field within his power and practice theory, translator training is a social field with characteristics shared with other social fields. The present article, taking a sociological approach to translation pedagogy, attempted at exploring and applying elements of the field analogy, along with its accompanying notions, in the field of translator training. The findings particularly point to the role of habitus, capital and position-taking in understanding the practices observed in the field of translator training as well as how Bourdieusian sociology can inform this dynamic social space. Agents' socialization, here that of trainee translators and translator trainers, which is closely linked with their academic specialization and different types of identities, draws on their habitus and capitals, consisting of dimensions and types. Besides, capital conversion accounts for some practices in the field of translator training. Farzaneh Farahzad, Hamid Varmazyari Copyright (c) Thu, 02 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Translatorial Preface: A Persuasive Narrative “Reframing” Device The study posited translatorial prefaces, the personal narrative of translators, as a device in reframing the narratives of the source text and trying to persuade the readers to buy into the mediated narratives. The concepts of “persuasion” and “reframing” have been derived from Aristotle and Baker, respectively. One hundred translatorial prefaces written by Iranian translators to the fictions, translated from different languages into Persian during sixty years (1330–1390, 1951–2011CE) in Iran, were hence selected randomly. They were then investigated to figure out how the source texts’ narratives were reframed by translatorial prefaces and what persuasive modes were at work to convince the readers. The findings of the study indicate that translatorial prefaces can reframe the narratives of the source text through different reframing strategies in addressing the why, how, and who of reading. Translators also employ the three persuasive modes of ethos, pathos, and logos to inspire the readers’ trust in their narratives. Translatorial prefaces in other words, are found to be among the rare effective opportunities for translators to constitute their own narratives. Maryam Hosseinzadeh Copyright (c) Thu, 02 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0430 The Role of Syntactic Reordering in the Improvement of Persian to English Machine Translation of Separable Compound Verbs <p>One of the controversial problems in Persian- English machine translation is the category of separable compound verbs. This kind of verbs has a broader range of numbers and application than light verbs. So it seems that improving the translation of these verbs is effective in the whole study. Providing a general list of separable compound verbs in Persian as the first and an effective step can play an important role in solving this problem. Since the prerequisite of syntactic pre-processing is identifying and categorizing the kinds of separable compound verbs. To this end, the verb valancy dictionary of Dadegan website composed of 4282 different verbs was scrutinized by the researchers. Among them, more than 1500 verbs were extracted as the separable compound verbs by using the web corpus. In the next step in order to show the amount of improvement in machine translation of separable compound verbs by applying syntactic pre-processing, 500 sentences containing separable compound verbs were chosen and given to Moses Decoder, once without pre-processing and once by applying the reordering rules on them. Of course before it, Mizan parallel was trained to this decoder. The Bleu score without pre-processing was 16 and after applying the reordering rules it improved to 16.3. This improvement shows the effect of syntactic reordering on machine translation of Persian separable compounds to its English equals.</p> Rezvan Motavallian, Ahmad Zaeri, Zahra Zamani Copyright (c) Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Authorial Style in English-Persian Literary Translation: Focusing on Key Phrase Allusions <p>Literary translation has always been the subject of discussion from a multitude of perspectives. One of the most controversial aspects of literary translation is the translator’s treatment of the authorial style. One of the elements of authorial style comprises rhetorical figures, from among which key-phrase allusions seem to pose considerable challenges for literary translators. The present study was conducted to find answers to two questions: 1- Do English-Persian literary translators have a tendency to preserve the authorial style as regards allusion as a stylistic feature; and 2- Do English-Persian literary translators have a tendency to adopt a unified approach in the translation of allusions? A bottom-up analytical model was developed for this study and used to explore the translator’s treatment of key-phrase allusions as a feature of authorial style in the Persian translations of four classic novels by Conrad, Faulkner, Joyce and Golding. The results showed that the English-Persian literary translators examined in this study do not have a tendency to adopt the author-focused approach and to preserve the authorial style as regards the stylistic feature of allusion; however, they mostly showed a tendency towards adopting a unified translation approach, here called “audience-focusedness” in their treatment of the allusions.</p> Farzaneh Farahzad, Ehsan Zaheri Copyright (c) Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Lexical and Paratextual Differences in Self-Retranslation <p>Based on Berman’s retranslation hypothesis, the present article aimed at detecting and explaining the differences between the first and second Persian translations of two English novels (<em>Nineteen Eighty-Four</em> and <em>Lord Jim</em>) by the same Persian translator (Saleh Hosseini) over a decade at lexical and paratextual levels. To this end, first the translations and retranslations were compared with each other and both were compared with the source texts. Then, an interview was conducted with the translator in a bid to triangulate the data. The results indicated that the self-retranslations went through substantial changes at both levels. The results demonstrated that both self-retranslations were more target language oriented. Therefore, the results were in contradiction with Berman’s retranslation hypothesis which holds that retranslations are closer to the source texts than first translations. In fact, self-retranslations were found to be more natural, hence more target language oriented, explained by the translator as a result of a new understanding of the source texts intended meaning, target language and target reader. However, the contradiction might be due to the fact that in this article self-retranslation was investigated, and not retranslation in its general sense. So, it can be concluded that self-retranslation may not follow Berman’s hypothesis.</p> Farzaneh Farahzad, Sajjad Tahmasbi Boveiri Copyright (c) Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Fostering Creativity Through Difficulties of Poetry Translation Poetry translation is generally seen as a highly demanding task and literary translation scholars have repeatedly highlighted its difficulties to the extent that some believe in its impossibility. The present study attempts to illustrate that these difficulties are unduly exaggerated and the constraints imposed by such difficulties are tightly tied to creativity. In fact, the constraints provide a fertile ground for creativity to thrive. Then different student translations of one of Shakespeare's sonnets are presented as an evidence of how challenges posed by translation can result in creative solutions. At the end, some suggestions are given on how literary translation courses can foster creativity. Mohammad Khatib Copyright (c) Mon, 09 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Commercial Paratexts on the Book Covers of Translated Literary Books in Iran This paper examined the commercial paratexts on the book covers of translated literary books in Iran over the past thirty five years. The purpose was to reach a better understanding of marketing and advertisement methods for translated books and to learn about the viewpoints of translators and publishers about readers and the book market. Also, the position of the translator and translation in the advertisements on the book covers was analyzed. To do so, the covers of 200 books were examined on the basis of Kovala’s model and the paratexts were classified. Further, the aspects which the paratexts drew attention to and the functions which they foregrounded were noted. The results showed that such paratexts focused on the publisher, the book and its writer, the translator and his/her translation, and the cover designer. The paratexts drew the reader’s attention to such things as the literary/artistic value of the work, its commercial success, its appeal for the reader, its awards, and the list of best books it had appeared on. These paratextual elements, when playing their informative, conative, phatic, and poetic functions, mostly concentrated on the work itself and its writer and did not pay much attention to the translator and translation. It seems that advertisers of translated books consider the readers as more interested in the literary work itself rather than its translation. Consequently, not much is said about translator and translation in the advertisements on the book covers. Mazdak Bolouri Copyright (c) Mon, 09 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0430 A Comparative Study of the Holy Qur’ān’s English Translations by Muhammad Ali and Shakir: Plagiarism or Revision? The present article aims at comparing the Holy Qur’ān’s English translations by Maulana Muhammad Ali (1917) and M. Habib Shakir (1980). Shakir was a Pakistani merchant and Muhammad Ali was a scholar of the Qadiani sect. The logic behind the selection of their works was their irrefutable similarity. The main question is whether we can label Shakir’s work a revision of Muhammad Ali’s or not. The other issue was to identify the percentage of such a similarity. Since the possibility of detecting major differences between the two works was stronger in the selection of equivalents for culture-bound items, and more specifically, for religious-specific concepts, such terms were first extracted from the entire chapters of the Holy Qur’ān and the equivalents adopted by the two translators were identified. It was finally revealed that Shakir has employed more than 80% of the religious-specific terms being selected previously by Muhammad Ali. The similarities were not, of course, limited to RSTs. Even a cursory glance at some Surahs will reveal the indisputable similarity of the two works at various levels, from words to phases, sentences, Signs or even, the entire Surahs. In some research papers, the authors may erroneously consider Shakir’s work as an original one and make no mention of Muhammad Ali’s. Shakir’s work should neither be considered a plagiarism, nor an independent translation: it is merely a revision. Copyright (c) Mon, 09 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Towards a Model for the Analysis of ‘Translation Poetics’ Poetics is one of the concepts of literary studies which has been applied by translation studies theorists and scholars and its definition can be considered as a working tool for translation studies researchers. In this regard, this study, as a meta-analysis, attempts to critically review 62 studies which untitled poetics of translation in order to find out an operational definition for this concept in a theoretical framework. The findings show that most of the reviewed studies have used the concept of poetics for the investigation of different issues like 'history of poetry translation’, 'literary history', 'author or translator's style’, etc. without giving any clear definition for this concept in their research framework. Notwithstanding studies done by Popovič (1968/1971), Lefevere (1992) and Barnstone (1993) have used an operational definition for (translation) poetics. In spite of their shortcomings, their application of key tenants of these studies together could allow researchers of the present study to refine the concept of poetics, classify it in two forms of ‘poetics proper' and ‘translation poetics’, shed light on their relationship, revisit poetics as ‘translation poetics’ in the historical context of translation and finally develop a tentative model for the analysis of this concept. Through such a model, the role of translation in the establishment of ‘poetics proper’ and ‘translation poetics’ is determined. Salar Manafi Anari, Maryam Saidi Copyright (c) Mon, 09 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0430 The Pursuit of Peace <p>This paper is to see what political works about the Reformist foreign policy were translated into Persian under the Reformist administration in Iran, and why they were selected for translation. As a historical and corpus-based study, the research focused on the period from 2001 to the end of the Reformist administration (2005/08/03). The translated political works about international relations that had been initially published in the period were retrieved from an online database. A corpus of paratextual material on each translation was compiled through a library–archival research. Then, Dialogue among Civilizations and Détentism, as two distinctive features of the Reformist foreign policy, were looked for in the corpus. Out of 74 translations initially published in the period, it was found that two and nine translations, respectively, had reproduced Dialogue among Civilizations and Détentism in their paratexts, which accounts for why the works were selected for translation. Ample paratextual evidence was provided about the themes, production context, and political features of those translations. Selection of political works for translation was finally argued as a political decision, and translation was discussed as related to politics within Luhmann’s social systems theory.</p> Parviz Rassouli Copyright (c) Mon, 09 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0430 A Comparative Study of the Quality of Persian Translations by Google Translate and SDL Free Translation <p>As the aim of machine translation is to replicate human translation, it is of much significance to incorporate human judgments of translation quality into system development. While there have been a large number of studies on the quality of machine translation outputs in many language pairs, there are limited studies on the quality of machine translation outputs in the context of English into Persian translation as assessed by human evaluators. With this in mind, the present research investigated into the quality of translations by Google Translate and SDL Free Translation in terms of clarity, accuracy, style and informativeness as assessed by professional as well as student translators in the context of translation from English into Persian<em>. </em>The texts chosen for evaluation by two machine translation systems consisted of four extracts adapted from two different genres. The first two passages were travel guides while the other two passages were manuals. Our data indicated that while both systems provided translations which were of poor quality in terms of clarity, accuracy, style and informativeness as assessed by our evaluators, the quality of translations by Google Translate was higher than that of SDL.</p> Helia Vaezian, Ali Pakdaman Copyright (c) Sun, 11 Feb 2018 17:01:19 +0330 Nominal Metaphor Translation: Extension and Reference to Universal Metaphors by General Terms <p>Looking at nominal metaphors from the perspective of class-inclusion model of metaphor comprehension and universal (conceptual) metaphors view, the present article aimed to investigate the changes that might happen in a metaphor when it is translated from one language to another one. Participants of this study were 30 undergraduate students in the Department of English of Shahid Chamran University. All participants were Persian native speakers. They were given 35 nominal metaphors to translate from English into Persian. Based on the obtained results, it was found that when English nominal metaphors are translated into Persian, the vehicles of the metaphors tend to be replaced by general words. On the basis of class-inclusion model and universal metaphors view, two possible reasons are suggested to be behind this tendency. Firstly, general words are more readily extended. Consequently, they easily create larger categories that might include both literal and metaphorical sense of the vehicle. Secondly, general words create higher-order or sometimes universal metaphors under which a large number of metaphors are categorized. Universal metaphors are shared by many, and perhaps by all languages of the world. Therefore, they are readily understood across various languages and cultures.</p> Babak Yazdani Fazlabadi, Omid Khatin-Zadeh Copyright (c) Sat, 10 Feb 2018 15:45:18 +0330 Dynamic Equivalence in Four Old and New Translations of Rumi’s Mathnavi <p>The present paper reports a research which aimed at investigating the level of dynamic equivalence (D-E) in four translations of forty five didactic couplets chosen from the<em> First Book</em> of Rumi’s <em>Mathnavi</em>. In order to do so, a parallel corpus-based study was carried out based on Nida’s concept of dynamic equivalence. The subjects participating in the study were educated native English speakers who were asked as target readers to rate the translations in terms of being dynamic. The results showed that Nicholson’s translation is more dynamic and capable of communicating the ST message to its audience than the two translations that were published in the 21<sup>st</sup> century and the marked shift of emphasis from the formal to the dynamic dimension in translating literary texts that Nida (1964, p. 160) mentioned does not still hold regarding the translations of the <em>Mathnavi</em>.</p> Salar Manafi Anari, Tolou Mollabashi Copyright (c) Sat, 10 Feb 2018 15:34:57 +0330 A Semantic Analysis of English Equivalents of Idioms of Mathnawi in Nicholson’s Translation <p><em>Mathnawi</em> is one of the most significant masterpieces of Iranian literature which has been fully translated into English by the famous English orientalist, Reynold Alleyne Nicholson and invoked by many scholars ever since. This research aims to study the different approaches of the translator in terms of the translation of idioms in <em>Mathnawi</em>, on the basis of Baker's (2011) six fold theory to determine the translator's success in rendering the figurative speech of this corpus. In order to do so, over one thousand of <em>Mathnawi</em>'s idioms and special expressions were collected and after analyzing their various concepts and meanings in Persian, they were compared with their English equivalents to show the translator's major tendency. The results of this research reveal that in the mentioned translation, the translator's dominant method has been <em>word for word</em> or <em>literal translation</em>, and the relevant reasons are mentioned in the essay.</p> Reza Abbasi, Ali Akbar Khomeyjani Farahani, Behrooz Mahmoodi Bakhtiyari Copyright (c) Sat, 10 Feb 2018 15:28:09 +0330 Word-selection Methods in the Translation of Elliptical and Excessive Metonymy in the Holy Qur’ān Verses Recognizing metonymy and its types are one of the keys to understanding the Holy Qur'ān. For this reason, without knowing and recognizing them, incorrect interpretations of Quranic verses are made. In this paper, firstly, the definition of the metonymy and its types, then the differences between the opinions of scholars on the elliptical and excessive metonymy have been provided. Finally, using the inductive-deductive method, examples of elliptical and excessive metonymies of the Holy Qur'ān has been given and the methods of word-selection translation of them has been analyzed in ancient selected translations (Tabari, Sur-Abadi, Nasafi, Meybodi and Abul-Futouh Razi). The result of this research shows that the mentioned translators have not used similar methods in the translation of elliptical and excessive metonymy, Tabari and Abul-Futouh Razi in most cases have translated in literal terms; however, Meybodi and Sur-Abadi and then Nasafi have mostly considered the implied meaning of the word and they have adopted content-based translation and have resorted less to literal translation. Zahra Mohammadi, Simin Valavi Copyright (c) Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 Translation Analysis of Emphasis Devices of Qasr by Negative (Lā) and Exception (Illā) in Some English Translations of the Holy Qur’ān: A Case Study of Shakir, al-Hilālī-Muhsin Khān, and Irving Translations The study of emphatic devices as grammar-rhetorical technique in Qur'ān translations reveals the union, difference, balance or unbalance of their equivalents based on the theories of translation. Regarding the position of this technique in the source language, criticism and assessment of qasr by Negative (lā) and exception (illā) equivalents can lead to precise translation based on House textual theory. Study of this technique in the English translation of Shākir, Irving, al-Hilālī-Muhsin Khān by this norm that is based on equivalent structure of source text, though reveals some weakness, indicates their rather success. In such verses one can present a good translation from structure point of view by observing correct negation, Taking attention to the word that emphasis is on it, and making it emphasized and use of intensifying "only”, "merely”, "but" before it. Though felicitous miracle of the Qur'ān, linguistics differences and the translator role, himself, have an effective role in balanced or unbalanced translation of this technique, but based on linguistic position of this technique in source language, use of House overt translation method, make appropriate proportion in this field. Mahmoud Vaezi, Muhammad Riza Rasuli Ravandi, Mahdi Moseli Copyright (c) Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 Metaphor in Hafez's Sonnets from the Perspective of Its Arabic Translations by al-Shvarabi and Shebli The viewpoint about metaphor has completely changed from the past to the present especially after the theory of metaphor by George Laykoff and Mark Johnson enters into the field of cognitive linguistics. Based on this approach, metaphors reflect the conceptual system of the human mind that is influenced by its culture and experiences in the form of language. In this regard, it should be noted that one of the problems of translating poetry and specially Hafez's poem is linguistic and cultural concepts. In this article, we examine the methods used by the two Arab translators, Ibrahim al-Shvarabi and Omar Shebli, in translating the metaphors of the Hafez Divan, and show the impact of the methods employed in the translation of metaphors on the representation of cultural identity. For this purpose, we highlighted Hafez ghazals’ metaphors (50 ghazals of Divan of Hafez based on Qazvini version) according to classic comments, then explaining the method of translating each metaphor using Newmark's theory. The results show that Arabic-language translators, in spite of attempting to provide faithful translations and not deleting the phrases of Hafez's sonnets, have not succeeded in translating metaphors that depend on the cultural concepts of this poet. Adnan Tahmasebi, Atiyeh Yousefi, Mohammad Reza Torki, Farzaneh Farahzad Copyright (c) Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 On the Iranian-Armenian-Arabic Intercultural Exchanges and the Role of Translation Sources, references and written literature of each nation are based on legends, epics, myths and oral literature. In result of exchanges between various cultural, political, social and religious factors, translation literature contributes to the creation of a culture and national literature. Armenian written literature is one of the most prominent examples that translation has had an effective role on its development and spread during different periods. The history of Armenian translation literature has been influenced continuously by Armenian cultural, political and social changes with its ups and downs. The Armenian translation movement was the beginning of the translation of the many Assyrian, Greek, Iranian and Arabic writer’s works and the formation of the Armenian golden age literature. This article after explaining the importance of translation in the development of Armenian literature, examines the importance of the most important feature and translation role of Iranian culture in the Iranian-Armenian intercultural exchange. The study of the Armenian Arabic cultural relations, the reflection of Islamic culture in the texts of Armenian mysticism and the first Armenian translations of the Quran Karim are among the other issues discussed in this article. Language, culture and translation are three effective factors in establishing the relationship between the three nations, the three different cultures. Mohammad Malek Mohammadi Copyright (c) Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 A Comparative Analysis of Description in the Story of Zal and Roodabeh of the Shahnameh and Its Arabic Translation by Bondarī Esfahani Abolqasem Ferdowsi has used beautiful artistic and literary descriptions and illustrations in many stories of Shahnameh. He put this fan to adjust the narrative time, give the visual aspect to the person, and used to create space and the formation of a curtain and the like. This research examines these definitions in forty bits from the story of Zal and Roodabeh. Considering the aesthetic functions, narratives and styles that these narratives have played in the narrative and reviewed how it was translated into Arabic translation. The results of the research show that Bondarī is influenced by his historical and religious approach in such cases, the removal, duplication, and transliteration are inaccurate. As a result, many of the logical relations of the narrative in his translation are shown without proportions and the beautiful poetry scenes of the poet have been translated into solid and uncreated and does not affect the size of the original language at all. Seyyed Mehdi Masboogh, Shahram Delshad Copyright (c) Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 Student-centred Corrections of Translations and Translation Accuracy: A Case of BA Translation Students Research into assessment is in its infancy in translation studies, and there is a paucity of research in this regard. The present study mainly aimed at: 1) examining if student-centered corrections of translations has any impact on the translation accuracy created by translation students, and 2) exploring the translation students’ reactions to the use of student-centered corrections of translations. The study adopted both qualitative and quantitative approach to gather and analyze the data. A pool of 32 BA translation students participated in this experimental study. The students were required to fill in their Correction Cards while correcting their mistakes, following the student-centered assessment developed by Sainz (1994). The results of the ANCOVA revealed that there was a significant difference in the students’ accuracy scores for subjects in the experimental group and the control group. Moreover, the results emerged from students’ responses to the interview questions revealed that translation students were satisfied with student-centered corrections of translations. As for the translation students, student-centered corrections of translations allows for self-assessment and reassessment; they can assess their progress and measure their translation performance and reevaluate themselves as many times as needed. Ghasem Modarresi, Seyyed Vahid Ghoreyshi Copyright (c) Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 The Relationship between Personality Type and Iranian Undergraduate Simultaneous Interpreting Trainees’ Improvement Rate Having adopted as its departure point the impact of nonlinguistic factors on interpreting performance, the present empirical study has addressed the possible relationship between Iranian simultaneous interpreting trainees’ performance improvement and their personality type, i.e., extroversion/ introversion. Thirty five undergraduate students of English Translation at Allameh Tabataba'i University, both male and female aged 20–25, took part in the research. They received simultaneous interpreting training over eight months; with two contact hours per week, the total in-class training measured more than 60 hours. To objectively quantify the participants’ performance improvement, two tests of simultaneous interpreting (pretest and posttest) were administered and scored by three raters. Towards the end of the training period, a standard test of personality type was also conducted. The trainees’ simultaneous interpreting improvement rate was found to have almost no correlation with extroversion (r = -0.08) while it had a moderate positive correlation with the degree of introversion (r = 0.46) suggesting that introverts are better equipped for undertaking the mentally-challenging task of simultaneous interpreting. Mir Saeed Mousavi Razavi Copyright (c) Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 Translatorial Interventions and Narrative Structure <p>The present paper attempts to explore the relation between a narrative text in one language and its translated counterpart in another language, making use of Rimmon-Kenan’s (2005) narrative model, adapted to translation. First, the structure of narrative, i.e. story, text and narration is introduced in brief. Story level elements including events and characters, together with text level elements, i.e. time, characterization and focalization are chosen for analysis. These constituents of narrative are redefined to count for what happens through translation. Providing several examples, it is shown that all of these elements may change in the process of translation. Therefore, against the common belief among narratologists who claim that changing the language of a narrative does not affect its story (Rimmon-Kenan, 2005, p. 9), it is argued that the translator’s interventions in the narrative, regardless of its being conscious or unconscious, affect both the story and text levels of narrative. It is concluded that the translator’s perception of the story world and adjusting this world to the real world as experienced by the translator is the major factor responsible for these interventions. Therefore, providing several examples of translatorial interventions, the present study argues in favor of translators’ idiosyncrasies as the reason behind these interventions.</p> Farzaneh Farahzad, Afsaneh Mohammadi Shahrokh Copyright (c) Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 The Genesis of Drama Translation Field in Iran: A Sociological Approach This paper aims to investigate the gradual genesis of drama translation field in Iran within the context of a sociological approach to translation. The theoretical framework of this study is based on Bourdieu’s social theory. The study covers a historical and social review of Qajar period in Iran to trace the genesis of drama translation field. Understanding the early phases of the genesis of the field depends on understanding a number of socio-cultural factors which this research has tried to cover by means of a macro-structural investigation. The data in this study indicates that such socio-cultural developments as the rise of literacy rate, the translation movement, the press, the rise of new intellectual class, and the establishment of political institutions like Parliament during Qajar period reshaped Iranian society. From the Constitutional Revolution onwards, Iran saw the progressive genesis of different fields (political, cultural, literary, journalistic, criticism) and also the emergence of new cultural agents (drama translators, playwrights, critiques, theatrical groups, theater magazines). Accordingly, all these socio-cultural factors and the interactions among the agents made the genesis of drama translational field possible. Hussein Mollanazar, Farideh Shabani Rad Copyright (c) Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 Strategies of Censorship in Translating Children’s Stories from English into Persian Censorship is a form of manipulative rewriting of discourse by one agent or structure over another agent or structure, aiming at filtering the stream of information from one source to another. Censorship has an important role in the translation of Children’s literature. The present research aimed to find answers to two questions: 1) in what domain (moral, religious, political, and military) is censorship mostly applied in translation of children’s stories? 2) Which censorship strategies were utilized more in children stories? To this end, a corpus comprising 25 stories for children plus their Persian translations was complied. Next the corpus was studied utilizing Toury's norms and Dukate’s categorization. Then all the 25 books and their Persian translations were compared and contrasted. The results indicated that, religious censorship in pictures and text chunks of children's stories had the highest frequency. It seems that sensitivity of censorship strategies mostly concentrates on the religious issues. Khatereh Vahhabzadeh Copyright (c) Sat, 10 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 The Appropriateness of the Vocabularies Applied in Children’s Translated Literature: A Corpus-based Approach In order to facilitate any communication with child’s world, the level of difficulty and size of the vocabularies used for children is expected to be lower than adult’s literature so that the comprehension of the translated children text can become easier for children. This research intended to answer the following question: Are the vocabularies prepared in the children’s translated book in Persian appropriate for their age group in comparison with the Persian core vocabularies? The present study claimed to be descriptive and qualitative in its approach to translation. The following paper was based on descriptive translation studies proposed by Toury. Moreover the corpus applied in the research was monolingual comparable corpus. To answer the research question, the following procedures were attempted: 64 stories from different publications and the Iranian primary school core vocabularies, prepared by the Organization for Educational Research and Programming, ministry of education of Iran whose organizer was doctor Nematzade, were compared. The research revealed that the vocabularies in the children’s translated books were not completely appropriate for their age group in comparison with the core vocabularies. Mina Zandrahimi, Azadeh Sharifi Moghaddam Copyright (c) Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Determining the Type and Weight of Clauses of Relational Process in Google Translate Persian into English by Translation Evaluation Model of HAR from Halliday's SFG Lexico-grammar errors in 10 clauses of relational process, translated by Google Translate Persian into English, are analyzed from SFG using the HAR pattern designed by the authors. Since the ratio of the unmarked identified-identifier clauses to marked identified-identifier clauses and the ratio of unmarked carrier-attribute clauses to marked carrier-attribute clauses in Ph.D. thesis was 4 to 1, here 4 unmarked and 1 marked identified-identifier clauses and 4 unmarked and 1 marked carrier-attribute clauses have been deliberately selected to be investigated. HAR error codes of 2, 3, 4, and 6 which are considered as more serious errors due to having more direct relationship to textual and experimental metafunctions were less than other error codes, meaning these two metafunctions are considerably taken into account by Google Translate in relational process. Zeinolabedin Rahmani, Ferdows Aghagolzadeh, Aliyeh Kord Zaferanlou Kambouzia, Arsalan Golfam Copyright (c) Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Investigation of the Accessibility of Online Citations in Iranian Researchers’ Articles Indexed in ISI in Translation Studies This study was intended to investigate the URLs of web resources in Iranian researchers’ articles indexed in ISI in translation studies. This applied research was of quantitative measurement type. The research method was citation analysis. The statistical population of this research was all articles by Iranian researchers in translation studies in ISI database which were indexed in SSCI (Social Science Citation Index). The results of this research revealed that in articles written by Iranian researchers indexed in ISI in translation studies there were 2411 citations of which 18 percent were online citations. The most frequently used domain in all three fields was .org. The most stable and persistent domains were .org and .com. The most frequent file format was pdf which had the highest rate of stability together with html. The status of inaccessible internet addresses in all investigated articles regarding error messages also indicated that in translation studies, 404 error message (Not found) was the most frequent error with 24 percent. The average half-life of online citations calculated in all investigated articles was 1 year and 11 months. Oranus Tajedini, Azita Ghazizadeh, Ali Sadat-Mousavi Copyright (c) Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Dialogism and Polyphony: Silent Cry of Text Novel is inherently full of linguistic and paralinguistic subtleties. More than one actor is usually presented in novel; each of them has its own tone and speech by which they enter into interaction and dialog with each other. Through these conversations some parts of the actors’ identity along with the author’s intention is revealed to readers. This issue could be considered relevant to Bakhtinian concepts of dialogism and polyphony. According to Bakhtin, each narrative personality has its own voice (Ahmadi, 1393, p. 109) and finally all these different voices together form the literary text. Recognizing and reflecting these two phenomena in literary translation has great significance as it results in creating almost the same aesthetic-affective impact of the original text. In this qualitative-analytical study, the way of reflecting and transferring these features in translation is investigated; to this end, a contrastive analysis was applied to two different translations of Le père Goriot by Balzac. The results indicate that the translator’s awareness of coexisting voices in a text and ability to distinguish the various registers and tones of the actors end in preservation of dialogic and polyphonic nature of the original text; consequently by avoiding homogenization a more faithful translation has been provided. Sepideh Navabzadeh Shafi’i, Moluk Daneshmand Copyright (c) Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 The Qualitative Assessment of Arabic Translation of Nezami's Haft Peikar Based on Antoine Berman's Theory: A Case Study of al-Arāes al-Sab’ of Abdul Aziz al-Baghghush Antoine Berman, with his theory "tendances déformantes" (deformation tendencies), emphasized on the importance of the Other by underscoring the original text. He believed that translators must respect the original text and be faithful toward it. In this paper, we examine the Arabic translation of Haft Peikar by Abdul Aziz Al-Baghghush, using seven parameters of Berman's theory. The conclusion shows the main reasons of deviation in Arabic translation from Haft Peikar of Nezami are as follows: translator's incompetence in the Persian language, grammatical and lexical differences between Arabic and Persian and naturally mismatch of culture, civilization, and traditions between these two nations. Ali Afzali, Marziyeh Datubar Copyright (c) Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Map of Translation Research in Iran: A Local Meta-analysis The valuable background of research on translation in Iran propelled us to measure the strengths and weaknesses of the present state of Translation Studies in Iran. For this purpose, 956 research projects published in the form of dissertations and journal articles were analyzed using Van Doorslaer’s (2009) classification of research areas in Translation Studies with a few modifications. The results showed research on translation act has been slightly more frequent than research on translation studies. On the level of translation practice, written translation was the most favorable compared to multimedia translation and interpreting. Regarding written translation, the studies focused on translation strategies, textual elements in translation and translation mode. In translation studies research, approaches to translation and applied research on translation studies were more common than the other two subcategories i.e. translation theories and research methods. From among the subareas of applied translation studies, translation didactics received the most attention and translation evaluation, terminology, technology, and institutional and professional environments were the next most prevalent subareas respectively. Reza Arta Copyright (c) Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Persian to English Translation Problems of Topicalization Process in Apertium Platform Machine translation encounters several problems in translating from Persian language to English, due to morphological, lexical, and structural divergences between these languages. It becomes especially more difficult when the source language (SL) has specific characteristics which are unavoidable in the process of machine translation systems. This article is going to present some syntactic problems, the Apertium shallow-transfer rule-based machine translation (RBMT) platform encounters in translating structures with topilcalization from Persian to English, and tries to solve them based on the Apertium structural transfer module. Then, this developed Apertium system is evaluated using word error rate (WER) and position-independent error rate (PER), metrics and its quality is compared with that of Google translate as a statistical machine translation system. The Apertium Persian monolingual dictionary was extracted from the frequent words of Wikipedia Persian Monolingual Corpus and Persian side of Mizan English-Persian Parallel Corpus. The result shows that the syntactic translation problems mainly arise from Persian syntactic structures with topicalized constituents which are difficult to be handled by the Apertium structural transfer module. One way to solve them is writing new structural transfer rules to translate these structures more adequately. Parya Razmdideh, Abbas Ali Ahangar, Seyyed Mojtaba Sabbagh Jafari, Gholamreza Haffari Copyright (c) Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Translation as Interpretation: A Hermeneutical View toward Translation The present paper investigates translation from a hermeneutical angle. Seeking the interrelationship between translation and hermeneutics besides exploring the very similar interpretive basis of the two, this study presents the hermeneutical theory as a legitimate discourse for discussing contemporary translation. Not far from expectation, translation is a dynamic task to be performed on the basis of a deep understanding of the source text. This makes translation a hermeneutical act by its very nature. At this juncture, one may say that the whole matter of translation is about hermeneutics and interpretation. The first and foremost implication of this acknowledgement is the celebration of the pluralistic nature of translation which does not simply succumb to any transcendental thinking so prevalent in translation tradition. This plurality is illustrated through investigating different translations of T.S. Eliot's poems through Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics. As revealed in this study, the translator's understanding of the source poem and his subsequent translation is an interpretive one. This means that different translations which illustrate different fusions of horizons can stand as equally valid interpretations, and each translation is far from being definitive and determinate. Salar Manafi Anari, Farnaz Safdari Copyright (c) Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Towards a Fuzzy Logic of Translation <p>This study pits Aristotelian logic against fuzzy logic in the context of translation. It takes as its point of departure the fuzziness of language in general and translation in particular, arguing that seeking pinpoint precision in translation is doomed from the outset and the myriad of dichotomies and apparent contradictions in translation no longer have to be viewed from the either/or lenses of Aristotelian logic. It is, therefore, all the more reason for us to account for fuzziness in translation more seriously and systematically. One prime theoretical candidate enabling us to investigate translation as such is fuzzy logic, which despite its potential has rarely been exploited in translation theories. While Aristotelian logic accords a value of either 0 or 1 to propositions, fuzzy logic allows truth values to range from 0 to 1, rendering propositions both true and false, on the one hand, and partially true and partially false, on the other. Then, the study sets out to look at the issue of equivalence, which has been traditionally beset by dichotomous thinking, from a fuzzy-logical perspective and discusses its theoretical implications.</p> Hussein Mollanazar, Ghodrat Hassani Copyright (c) Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Conflict Resolution Strategies in the Iran-Iraq War Books Iran is located in the Western Asia, an area with a long history of violent, bloody conflicts. Iranian translators who work in this context are frequently asked to cope with highly-charged texts which narrate and comment on its current and past conflicts. This study was aimed to examine and classify their strategies of conflict resolution in dealing with such texts in Iran. The focus was on detecting the most and least frequent strategies. Salama-Carr’s (2007), and Webne-Behrman’s (1998) definition of conflict were adopted, and Thomas-Kilmann’s (1974) typology of conflict resolution strategies were used as theoretical framework. The corpus included five books of the Iran-Iraq War along with their Persian translations. The books were published by Marz-o-Boom Publications with the aim of broadening readers’ view, and providing them with Iraqi or Western (Other) perspective on the war. A descriptive statistical analysis of the corpus was carried out. The results revealed that all Thomas-Kilmann’s (1974) resolution strategies, i.e. accommodating, avoiding, competing, compromising, and collaborating were used in the corpus. Compromising and accommodating were the most and least frequent strategy, with the percentages of 54.4 % and 1.3%, respectively. The findings suggest that, in a conflict situation, collaborating and compromising are two frequent and useful strategies in the translation context that could provide the readers with Other’s perspective but direct their reading at the same time. Accommodating and avoiding are rarely used in such a situation as the first means yielding to Other’s view point, and the latter does not address the conflict. Competing is used in dealing with sensitive national and ideological issues. Hussein Mollanazar, Marzieh Maddahi Copyright (c) Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Translation Discourse in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh Iranian poets and scholars’ propensity towards Persian-writing snowballed after the arrival of Islam. Islam entered non-Arab countries along with the Arabic language and strongly influenced languages of those nations. The Iranians were the only people that despite accepting the new religion maintained their national language and culture, yet made uninterrupted endeavor to retain the purview and Sharia of the Qur'an and the prophetic ma’surat, and translated many of those works into Persian. Ferdowsi (330-411 AH) is one of the fourth century literati, who insists on using his own national language and has shown this endeavor in the Shahnameh. Using content analysis approach, this paper intends to review the Shahnameh’s prologue lexicon as a sample in the field of translation discourse; it is anticipated that Ferdowsi has chosen around 90 percent of his words from Persian equivalents and knowledgeably avoids using Arabic lexicon. Ali-Mohammad Poshtdar, Sohrab Saeedi Copyright (c) Sun, 06 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Applying Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis for the Investigation of Translation of Multimodal Texts Case study: Cinderella story, online version (Children’s Literature) The new era of communication has become increasingly multimodal in form. The use of texts accompanied by images, sounds and other modes is so prevalent that most websites are equipped with such communicative channels. According to the available definitions, these texts can be considered multimodal. Use of images in human communication dates back to a time before writing emerged. Modern human beings enjoy facilitated communication thanks to the writing being combined with images, color, and other modes. Instances of them can be observed in multimodal texts, such as advertisements, comic strips, magazines, newspapers, websites and picture books or even e-books that are widely used todays. By using the suggested model of Machin and Mayer (2013) and Kress (2010) to analyze discourses consisting of texts and images, the present study intends to investigate and compare the original version of Cinderella story with its translation, which are published in Disneyland and Koodakan websites respectively. The study also aims at examining the changes made in the process of translation from a semiotic point of view. Mitra Mousavi Copyright (c) Sun, 06 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Translational Versus Non-Translational Persian: A Corpus-Based Study of Children’s Literature The introduction of corpora into Translation studies is relatively new with the first corpus-based translation research carried out in the 1990s. It waswhen translation researchers started to use the quantitative data provided by language corpora to formulate hypotheses aboutsimilarities across all translated texts. The present research sets out to investigate into thesimilarities and differences between translational and non-translational Persian children’s literature. To this end, a small monolingual comparable corpus of Persian children’s literature comprising 53,208 words of translational and 53,715 words of non-translational prose fiction books is compiled. The researchers then use both quantitative and qualitative data analysis methods to explore into the differences between translational and non-translational Persian children’s literature. The results areinterpreted in the light of Baker’s universals of translation and Toury’s law of interference. Our data supported Baker’s universals of translation as well as Toury’s law of interference in the context under study. Helia Vaezian, Mohammad Reza Esfandiari Copyright (c) Sun, 06 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Foregrounding and Backgrounding in the Holy Qur'ān and its English translations Unique linguistic and rhetorical features of the Holy Qur'ān have created many obstacles for translators. In the Qur'ān, form and content are closely interrelated, and word order has both semantic and rhetorical roles in verses. Concerning this, foregrounding and backgrounding in the Qur'ān realize some functions, and the present study was motivated by three research questions in this regard. The first question is whether the Qur'ān translators, in confronting foregrounding and backgrounding in the verses, produce marked or unmarked translations; and the other two questions are whether there is any difference between the translators in dealing with such verses regarding their native languages. In this regard, the Surah Al-An'ām and three English translations done by Arberry, Abdel Haleem, and Saffarzadeh were selected to be studied by considering the Hallidayan approach in determining markedness in English. The findings of the research illustrate that in less than one third of the cases, the translators have used marked structures. Abdel Haleem has the least number of marked translations. So the results show that it is not always the case that Qur'ān translators render such marked phrases by marked structures in English, and also it seems that the translators' native languages do not cause preference in this regard. Salar Manafi Anari, Maryam Ramezanpour Sobhani Copyright (c) Sun, 06 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Delving into Note-Taking Technique in Consecutive Interpreting: Academic Context in Focus The present study is a short report on the broad research project of training and assessment of consecutive interpreting in English translation at B.A level in local universities. The focus of this report is on note-taking technique which is believed to be a major one in consecutive interpreting training based on the interpreting studies literature. The participants of the present research report were from Jahrom State University. These participants were exposed to a ten-week instruction of consecutive interpreting techniques one of which is note-taking. For an in-depth analysis of the application of this technique, after the administration of a 7-minuteaudio-visual test of interpretation and the collecting of the students’ note-taking sheets, a retrospective interview was utilized to scrutinize the process of note-taking applied by the trainees The results indicated that the note-taking technique can be employed as an aid to memory retention in the consecutive interpreting training classes. Shilan Shafiei, Mansoor Tavakoli, Hossein Vahid Dastjerdi Copyright (c) Sun, 06 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Unintended Framing and Linguistic Habits: A Narrative Account This article draws on the notion of ‘narrative’ and ‘framing’ (Baker, 2006) to see whether or not the ideologically controversial aspects of the narratives encoded in Harry Potter book series have been framed in its Persian translations. In so doing, the article focuses on a Persian translation of one of the books of the series and examines the sites, in and around its text, at which the process of framing may be carried out. As with the sites inside the text, all cases of mismatch between the translated text and its source texts are examined and regarding the sites around the text, paratextual information is investigated. The result of the textual analysis showed many cases of mismatch which together led to a religiously charged text. However, this religious frame did not seem to be in line with the information found around the text. That is to say, the translator seemed to have unintentionally framed the text differently. In addition, based on the similarities between the tone of mismatches and the tone of paratextual information, it appeared that linguistic habits played a role in this reframing. To see if the translator had unintentionally reframed the source text, she was interviewed, and the result was positive. Also, similar mismatches were looked for in some other works of the same translator to see if linguistic habits had played a role and so many similar mismatches, which contributed to the same religious narratives, were found. Therefore, it appeared that, the translator influenced by her linguistic habits had reconfigured the narratives encoded in the source text unintentionally. Farzaneh Farahzad, Kaveh Bolouri Copyright (c) Sun, 06 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Loss and Gain in Poetic, Prose, & Explanatory Translations of the Holy Qur'ān The Qur'ān is an extremely rich source of wisdom, beauty, and Salvation, this is why in whose service so much time, money, and talent have been spent (Yusuf Ali, 1937, p. ix). Despite all these efforts the Book still remains highly challenging. The Holy Qur'ān with its divine nature, impregnable language, deepest meanings, and a pleasant melody still challenges translators. The prioritizing of, or better say, approximating some features of the Qur'ān by translators will result in loss of some other aspects in translations. The present research was carried out to find out which of the poetic, prose, and explanatory English translations of the Qur'ān have been more successful in preserving the form and meaning of the Holy Qur'ān using Nida and Taber’s framework (1969). The corpus of the study consisted of Surah Ya Sean and its three different English translations, namely poetic (by Fazlollah Nikayin), prose (by Arthur J. Arberry), and explanatory (by Yusuf Ali). The research found that the poetic translation is the one which has suffered the most in terms of both form and meaning. Prose translation has been the most successful in preserving the form and explanatory translation the most successful one in preserving the meaning. Salar Manafi Anari, Younes Mostafaei Copyright (c) Sun, 06 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Observing both Accuracy and Beauty in Translating Islamic Terms of the Holy Qur'ān: (IM)POSSIBLE? Accuracy, naturalness, clarity, and formal correspondence are considered by translation scholars to be features of ‘Good Translation’. Preservation of all these features does not seem to be always necessary and/or feasible. Therefore, sometimes one feature may be required to be sacrificed for the sake of another. The significance of some expressive religious texts, like the Holy Qur'ān, does not consist merely in its content. The formal beauty or aesthetic features of this greatest literary work cannot simply be neglected. Now, the issue is whether it is practical to preserve both accuracy of the content and beauty of the form as much as possible, or the translator would have no choice but to sacrifice one. In the present paper, the Holy Qur'ān and its 14 English translations were studied and compared based on Aixela’s model. Among the translators, only the Iranian great scholar and poet, professor Nikayin, was the only translator presenting a poetic rendition of the Holy Qur'ān, and therefore, the only one who had attempted to preserve the beauty of the miraculous work. He was also proved to be successful in accurately rendering the concepts underlying Islamic Term and Concepts (ITCs). It was concluded that capable and highly creative translators would potentially be able to observe both the formal beauty and the content of ST, simultaneously. Mahmoud Afrouz, Hussein Mollanazar Copyright (c) Sun, 06 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0430 The Role of Poetics in Translations of Molana’s Mathnawi Poems Translated from Persian into English The present paper is an attempt to find and discuss the poetics of poetry translation of the nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty first centuries of English language and to compare it with three translations of the Book One of the Mathnawi translated from Persian into English in order to understand the relation between the poetics of poetry translation of a particular time and its corresponding translation. To achieve this, first the poetics of poetry translation of these three centuries were found through library research. After that, each of these poetics was compared with the translation which was done with its corresponding time. The result made it clear that none of these three observed the poetics of their time. Although these translations were not in accordance with the poetics of poetry translation, this incongruity did not make them unacceptable. Hussein Mollanazar, Zahra Fakoori Copyright (c) Sun, 06 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Barks and Distortion of Mowlana's Poems: Ideological Manipulation in Poetry Translation Every nation's literature is indicative of the beliefs, interests and culture of that nation and translation of literary works plays a significant role in conveying them to other nations. Unfortunately, sometimes due to the manipulation of the source text, many semantic and formal aspects of the literary work are not retained in the process of translation. Generally speaking, ideological manipulation might be applied consciously or unconsciously. It is sometimes applied consciously to distort the ideology of the poet or author of the source text. As a result, the target audience will be provided with a distorted and untrue image of that poet or author. The present study was aimed at investigating the issue of ideological manipulation in English translation of Mowlānā's poems and the consequence of the translator's manipulation of these poems. To this end, five poems were selected randomly from Dīvān-e Šams-e Tabrīzī and Masnavi-ye Ma'navi. Then, they were compared with their English translation rendered by Barks (1997) based on Zauberga's (2004) theory of ideological manipulation. The results of this study demonstrated that the most frequently applied strategy was deletion and the translator has presented a distorted and untrue image of this great Iranian poet and mystic to the West. Asma Sabermahani, Arezoo Pooryazdanpanah Kermani Copyright (c) Sun, 23 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Translation and Redefinition of Gender Schemas: A Study on Three Women Journals during Pahlavi Era This descriptive, library and function-oriented study examinedthe role of translation in changing, consolidating or redefining gender schemas of the audience in three women journalsof Pahlavi era. Gender schemas are acquired through socialization. They are patterns and information frameworks by which people recognize the values, norms and gender roles of society. Thus, three women journals belonging tofirst and second Pahlavi eras entitled "Ālam-e Nesvān", "Ālam-e Zanān"and "Bacheh Qashang" were selected. First, the amount of the translations and the thematic frequency of the translated materials were evaluated. Next, considering the social status of women and common gender schemas of the era, the respective role of translation in redefining this type of schema was analyzed. In other words, this study attempted to find the answer to this question, did translation in these publications serve to establish common gender schemas of the time or try to change, and provide new pattern? Farzaneh Farahzad, Zeinab Amiri, Fatemeh Javadi Copyright (c) Sun, 23 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0430 The Influence of Hebrew Language on Nominal Group Elements in Judeo-Persian Translations of the Torah In the past, the translators have typically chosen morpheme to morpheme or source-oriented method for the scriptures translations. In this method, the source text would have a great influence on syntactic structures of target language. One of the scriptures translated to Persian by this method is the Torah. Usually the translations of the Torah can be seen in Persian-Hebrew texts. Most of this translations belong to 4th to 8th century A.H. In this article the author seeks to review some influences of Hebrew language on Persian nominal group elements in Persian-Hebrew translations of the Torah. For this purpose, the modifiers, numerative adjective, agreement in number and etc. were reviewed. Eventually, we will see the translations of the Torah are more difficult and strict compared with other translations of scriptures, so that translators tried to literally enter syntactic structures of Hebrew in Persian language. In addition, the influence of Hebrew language in Persian-Hebrew texts is a lot in the field of word components order, average in phrase structure and low in morphology. Hamed Norouzi Copyright (c) Sun, 23 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Translation and Intersubjectivity As a branch of philosophy, ethics is mainly concerned with regulations which govern interpersonal relationships in communications and secure social order within societies. Translation as a site for the realization of cultural transfer and interpersonal relationships has embraced moral overtones throughout history and has proved a fertile ground in studying ethics. Moreover, involving multiple subjects, translating invokes an ethics which governs actions and reassures parties of the legitimacy of their activity. The present research, conducted at a macro-level, studied ethics in translation through an integrated model. The data in this study were classified according to Chesterman's (2001) five models of translation ethics. Then, situated in Jurgen Habermas' model of communicative rationality as reconstructed by Liu Weidong (2011) within the field of translation studies, the classified data were further elaborated on. The present research introduces the integrated model for studies both at micro and macro levels and provides a general account of how principles of ethics are at work when an Iranian context is concerned. Shabnam Naderi, Farzaneh Farahzad Copyright (c) Sun, 23 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Strategies Applied by Native and Non-native Translators to Transfer Polysyndeton: A case study on the Holy Qur’an ‘Fa’ and ‘wa’ are two frequently used conjunctions in Arabic language creating a figure of speech called polysyndeton. As far as there is no exact equivalence in English possessing all functions of ‘fa’,it is unlikely to preserve this figure of speech in English translation of those sentences in which polysyndeton is created by ‘fa’.However, in the case of ‘wa’, polysyndeton can be kept in English translation because ‘wa’ and ‘and’ match in most functions (ten out of sixteen functions).In this research all verses in four surahs in the holy Qur’an containing this figure of speech were identified and their English translations by two native Arab and two non-native English speaking translatorswere compared. The results of the data analysis revealed that the translations by native translators (Mohammad Shakir and Talal Itani) were more ‘faithful’ to the original text. This could be due to the fact that they were aware of Arabic language tendency towards frequent use of conjunctions. On the other hand the non-native translators (Pickthal and Arberry) had a tendency towards higher degree of naturalness than the native translators. In these translations, the procedure of translation with different conjunction had the highest frequency for rendering the conjunctions. Mahvash Gholami, Seyedeh Asiyeh Moosavi Fard Copyright (c) Sun, 23 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Translationese in Novels Translated from English into Persian The present study was designed to examine the effect of translationese on the target texts. To reach this aim, the study relied on the two Persian translations of the three English novels, ‘Jane Eyre’, ‘Wuthering Heights’, and ‘Pride and Prejudice’, which were translated respectively under the titles, ‘ جین ایر’, ‘ بلندیهای بادگیر ’, and ‘ غرور و تعصب ’. In the first phase of the study, the investigator, based on Mollanazar’s (1990) model, randomly collected fifty English sentences with their two translations. In the second phase, the collected sentences were given in the format of a test to twenty undergraduate M.A. Students of translation studies at Allameh Tabataba’i University who were expected to indentify translationese, based on their linguistic knowledge, in any of the two target texts; and to underline the parts they found as translationese. The results of the research showed that translationese led to having difficulty of understanding and reading the target texts and unnaturalness. furthermore, as far as the percentage of translationese in 50 sentences are concerned, Reza Rezaee had performed better in his three translations of the respective novels which were also translated by Mehdi Afshar, Ali Asghar Bahram Beigi, and Shahrokh Pooranfar. Mina Mirzaee, Salar Manafi Anari Copyright (c) Sun, 23 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0430 A Study of Realia Translation Strategies in the Novel “A Thousand Splendid Suns” The present study aimed at investigating the realia translation strategies used by Iranian translators in the novel “A Thousand Splendid Suns”. To do so, the first twenty chapters of this best-seller novel were selected as the source text. Likewise, two Persian translations of this novel were chosen as the target text. While the first translation was carried out by a professional translator, the second translation was done by an amateur one. First, using Mikutytė’s (2005) model of realia, all the Cultural-Specific Items (SCIs) were extracted from the source text. These included 735 items. Then, each of the terms was compared with its two corresponding Persian translations to see what strategies have been used. The Researcher used Davies’ (2003) model of realia translation strategies. In addition, one more strategy was added to this model named normal translation. This referred to those cases when the translators had not used any of the seven translation strategies proposed by Davies (2003). As the findings of the study revealed, normal translation and preservation were the most frequent strategies used by both of the translators. While the professional translator used additions as the third most frequent strategy, the no-professional one tended to use omissions in most of the cases and this was detected to be the third most frequent strategy. Results also indicated statistically significant differences among the frequencies of the strategies in both translations. Marzieh Khoramabadi, Samad Mirza Suzani Copyright (c) Sun, 23 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Psychological POV through Modality System in Three Persian Translations of Woolf's To the Lighthouse This paper examines the ways in which the three translators have rendered psychological ‘point of view’ (PPOV) in their Persian translations of Virginia Woolf’s To the Lighthouse (TTL) through ‘modality’ system under so-called ‘translational narratology’ (TN). Having collected data manually rather than electronically from the forty five pages of the three parts of Woolf’s novel and its three Persian translations as a mini-corpus, this paper examines some frequent modals as ‘must’, ‘should’, ‘could’, and ‘might’ as the linguistic markers of PPOV through the modality system of English and Persian. With regard to ‘could’ as modality,the results show that the three Persian translators have tried, though through different Persian lexicon of ‘tavân’ and ‘shodan’, to translate ‘could’. As for 'must' as a deontic modal, Persian ‘bâyad’ plays an important role in the Persian language.In this sense, modality as qualifying the speaker’s statement or opinion has changed to an aspect expressing the habituality and the continuity of the action. The immediate result is that such changes if repeating frequently all through the translation, may affect the overall meaning of the text at the macro-level. Gholam Reza Tajvidi, Abolfazl Horri Copyright (c) Sun, 23 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0430 The Relationship between Crystallized Intelligence and Translation Performance of Undergraduate Translation Students Translation students’ crystallized intelligence, as an important theme in the psychology of translation, has not been investigated by the professionals in the field of translation studies. Students majoring in English translation studies are not well familiar with the importance of knowing how to use their skills, knowledge and experience in their translation practice. To this end, the current study mainly aimed at: 1) examining the association between crystalized intelligence and translation performance of the undergraduate translation students, and 2) investigating if the participants’ age makes any difference between crystalized intelligence and translation performance of the undergraduate translation students.In doing so, a pool of 62 students majoring in Translation Studies participated in the study from different universities. The results confirmed that there was a large, positive correlation between crystallized intelligence and translation performance (r= .64, n=62, p<.05). Having divided the students into two groups including the first group (from 21 to 23) and the second group (from 23 to 25), the results obtained from Pillai’s statistics showed that the age of the participants could moderate between scores obtained from crystallized intelligence and scores obtained from translation performance. Finally, the study offered practical implications for both translation students and translation teachers. Mahmood Azizi, Ghasem Moddaresi Copyright (c) Sun, 23 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Representation of Otherness in Persian Translations of English Travelogues: A Case Study of Glimpses of Life and Manners in Persia by Mary Lady Sheil The paper at hand investigates the relationship of translation and otherness. It studies the role of the translator's ideology in representing the orientalist identity (the concept of other) given to Persians by European travelers. One of the most influential English travelogues written about Iran during Naser al-Din Shah Qajar era (1848–1896) by Mary Sheil—the wife of Justine Colonel Sheil—is thus employed. First, the study aims to see whether self/other binary opposition of orientalist identity is revealed in the travelogue the way Edward Said (1978) states. Second, the Persian translation is analyzed to understand how the translator represents the orientalist identity (if any) ascribed to Persians in the ST. To that end, Jensen's (2009) conceptualization of embracement and resistance is used. The collected ST units are classified into 4 thematic categories including: Persian Peoples, Ameer Kabeer, Persian Women and Religious Culture. It was found that the image of ST other (the way Said (1978) describes it) had been most resisted in Religious Culture and Ameer Kabeer, while Persian Women and Persian Peoples were mostly embraced. Hussein Mollanazar, Zeinab Amiri Copyright (c) Sun, 23 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0430 Translation of Metaphors about Shirin in Shirin wa Khosrow Poem Translating literary texts compared to other text types entails more difficulties. The main characteristic of this kind of texts is the application of words in their figurative senses; that is, the use of metonymy, simile and metaphor. This is usually realized through the avoidance of explicitation and the primary meaning of the words and sentences. The present study intends to examine a number of metaphors about Shirin in Shirin wa Khosrow poem and their translations into Arabic to find out what strategies are used to translate the metaphors. The results of the study revealed that several strategies were used to render metaphors about Shirirn. Some metaphors are translated literally, some are substituted by an equivalent metaphor in the target language and some are translated into Arabic using a descriptive-explanatory note. Giti Faraji, Ali Mohammad Poshtdar Copyright (c) Mon, 09 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0330 A Study of Radif in a Ghazal by Hafiz and its Russian Translation This study examines the Russian translation of a ghazal by Hafiz and shows the difficulties of ghazal translation. The special features and qualities of poetry which are absent in prose render poetry translation more challenging. The present paper studies how radif in a ghazal by Hafiz is translated into Russian. Moreover, the semantic, syntactic, morphological and cultural features of radif are analyzed. Since form and content are highly intertwined in Hafiz poems, translation of radif becomes even more difficult. The results of the study revealed that the translator could not reach the deepest layers of Hafiz poem and produce an acceptable translation. Mahnush Eskandary, Ali Saeidi Copyright (c) Mon, 09 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0330 Strategies Opted for in Translating Twelve Categories of Quranic Terms The present study is an attempt to touch upon the Quranic terms and the strategies being opted for in their translations. To facilitate analyzing the data, the following steps have been taken: (a) classifying Quranic terms and their English equivalents (b) specifying the strategies of rendering them through applying Ordudari and Mollanazar’s (2016) model (based on Aixela’s (1996) model), (c) determining the frequency of each translation strategy (d) and examining the existence of a relationship between the frequency of a strategy and its effectiveness. It was found out that 40% of all Islamic terms and concepts belong to proper names (PNs) and 52% of PNs consist of God’s name. There has also been no conspicuous regularity or consistency in the strategies employed in rendering Quranic terms. Aixela’s general strategies of ‘conservation’ and ‘substitution’ have been identified as the least and the most frequently employed strategies, respectively. Finally, as far as the sub-strategies are concerned, ‘synonymy’ and ‘linguistic translation’ were found to be the most repeatedly used ‘substitution’ and ‘conservation’ strategies, respectively. The two least often utilized conservation strategies are ‘repetition’ and ‘intertextual gloss’. From among the substitution strategies, ‘autonomous creation’ and ‘deletion’ has been used less than the rest. Finally, neither of the potentially most effective strategies of EG, IG, EC and IC were found to be the most frequently used strategy. Interestingly, IG and EG are even less repeated than the least helpful strategies of OA and AU. Mahmoud Afrouz, Hussein Mollanazar Copyright (c) Mon, 09 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0330 Metaphor Typology and Translation in Shakespearean Plays The present study was conducted first to see if the metaphors have been maintained in Persian translation of four Shakespearean plays, and then, to see where metaphors have been maintained, and also to find out what types of metaphor in English have been translated to what types of metaphor in Persian. Finally, it aims to see whether the changes (not maintaining the metaphor or replacing its image with a Persian one) have affected Shakespeare’s rhetorical language. To answer the questions, all the metaphors (966 in total) of Richard II, Henry IV, Part 1, Henry IV, Part 2, and Henry V were extracted and categorized according to the types of metaphor in English and then their Persian translations were extracted and analyzed and their type in Persian were identified. It was found that 484 (50.01%) of metaphors were maintained and 482 (49.99%) were not. It was also shown that 77.65% of structural metaphors were translated into Mosarraheh metaphors, 61.29% of orientational metaphors and 36.94% of ontological metaphors were translated into a non-metaphorical form. While the results show that more than 50% of metaphors were maintained, it was concluded that Shakespeare’s rhetorical language is not maintained because 50% is not enough to conclude that Shakespeare’s language was maintained. Also, it was concluded that, cultural and literary differences (common usage of irony and‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌ metonymy instead of metaphor) between the languages have been substantial in not maintaining more metaphors. Maryam Kamal, Salar Manafi Anari Copyright (c) Mon, 09 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0330 The Impact of Ideology on Strategies Applied in Persian Dubbings of Sponge Bob Square Pants Audiovisual translation (AVT) is a challenging type of translation mainly because of its multimodal nature; in other words, when translating an audiovisual (AV) product, in addition to linguistic content, visual aspects of an image need to be taken into consideration. This study suggests a new line of research in the analysis of AV materials focusing on characterization. The aims of the current study were twofold: 1) investigating the traces of ideology in localization and adaptation strategies used by dubbers in the translation of cartoons, and 2) examining any changes in characterization resulting from applying localization and adaptation strategies. To this end, first, a corpus of fourteen episodes of the Sponge Bob Square Pants series and two of its translations conducted by GEM Junior and Pooya TV were selected. Then, first, the strategies used by dubbers in translating cartoons based on Bastin's (2005) adaptation model were discerned; next, to specify the reasons for which the strategies were applied, Chaume's (2002) model of signifying codes was used. After that, based on the adaptation and localization strategies used by dubbers, the ideologies of the two cartoon channels and the ideology of Iran's society regarding the concept of childhood were identified. The findings revealed that while transcription was the most frequently used strategy in GEM Junior TV, situational/cultural adequacy was the most frequent strategy used in Pooya TV. The findings indicated that Pooya TV's translation was target-oriented, translating in a way that is more familiar and acceptable in target culture. However, GEM Junior TV's translation was source-oriented and used a street talk language in some parts. Also, the findings of the study showed that in Pooya TV's dubbed version, some characters were delineated to be less impolite and violent. Farzaneh Khodabandeh, Katayoon Afzali Copyright (c) Mon, 09 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0330