Translation Studies Quarterly en-US (Hussein Mollanazar) (Hamid Sadeghieh) Fri, 07 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0430 OJS 60 Knowledge of Persian in English Translator Training Major: Importance, Status quo, and Recommendations for Improvement <p>Considering the ever-increasing communication among nations and the ensuing need for international relations in cultural, political and economic arenas, growing need for translators and interpreters has become more obvious, leading to the formation of translator training courses in different countries. Iran has also been active in this area for more than two decades. Yet, a pressing problem that may act as a possible factor to inhibit the course and lead to production of low quality translations and translators is a severe lack of lettered knowledge of Persian in translation students along with the ignorance of some trainers in that regard. These may contribute negatively to the aims of translator training programmes. The present paper, therefore, discusses the importance of a lettered knowledge of Persian, the first language of trainees, and then analyses the results of a questionnaire sent to translator trainers that tries to elicit relevant information. Finally, both old and new translator training curricula are scrutinised to come up with some ideas for improvement in that area, intending to contribute to the overall quality of the translator training programme.</p> Reza Rezaei ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 29 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0430 The Role of Syntactic Reordering in the Improvement of Persian to English Machine Translation of Separable Compound Verbs <p>One of the controversial problems in Persian- English machine translation is the category of separable compound verbs. This kind of verbs has a broader range of numbers and application than light verbs. So it seems that improving the translation of these verbs is effective in the whole study. Providing a general list of separable compound verbs in Persian as the first and an effective step can play an important role in solving this problem. Since the prerequisite of syntactic pre-processing is identifying and categorizing the kinds of separable compound verbs. To this end, the verb valancy dictionary of Dadegan website composed of 4282 different verbs was scrutinized by the researchers. Among them, more than 1500 verbs were extracted as the separable compound verbs by using the web corpus. In the next step in order to show the amount of improvement in machine translation of separable compound verbs by applying syntactic pre-processing, 500 sentences containing separable compound verbs were chosen and given to Moses Decoder, once without pre-processing and once by applying the reordering rules on them. Of course before it, Mizan parallel was trained to this decoder. The Bleu score without pre-processing was 16 and after applying the reordering rules it improved to 16.3. This improvement shows the effect of syntactic reordering on machine translation of Persian separable compounds to its English equals.</p> Rezvan Motavallian, Ahmad Zaeri, Zahra Zamani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0430 A Survey of the Translation of Imam Hossein's Divan in the Base of Saving the Main Meaning <p>One of the best methods in analyzing the variables of a literature work is criticizing that work in the base of its main meaning. Imam Hossein's divan as a poetic sample, having an instructive descriptions and contents translated to Persian language by Amir Jabery. In this article with qualitative method and by considering the main meaning in translation attempted to analyze the methodology of the translator and the way of expressing themes and also content criticizing of <em>Imam Hossein's divan</em>. The result of this article shows that the translator in the area that is related to literary method of the sentences, debates, and transferring the meaning has an acceptable performance. But in expressing the meaning of the poems by literal translation in the target language and choosing accurate synonyms for the words and vocabularies some errors and slips are seen in his translation.</p> Hasan Esmailzadeh, Siyamak Asgharpour, Hadi Fazlinejadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 07 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Authorial Style in English-Persian Literary Translation: Focusing on Key Phrase Allusions <p>Literary translation has always been the subject of discussion from a multitude of perspectives. One of the most controversial aspects of literary translation is the translator’s treatment of the authorial style. One of the elements of authorial style comprises rhetorical figures, from among which key-phrase allusions seem to pose considerable challenges for literary translators. The present study was conducted to find answers to two questions: 1- Do English-Persian literary translators have a tendency to preserve the authorial style as regards allusion as a stylistic feature; and 2- Do English-Persian literary translators have a tendency to adopt a unified approach in the translation of allusions? A bottom-up analytical model was developed for this study and used to explore the translator’s treatment of key-phrase allusions as a feature of authorial style in the Persian translations of four classic novels by Conrad, Faulkner, Joyce and Golding. The results showed that the English-Persian literary translators examined in this study do not have a tendency to adopt the author-focused approach and to preserve the authorial style as regards the stylistic feature of allusion; however, they mostly showed a tendency towards adopting a unified translation approach, here called “audience-focusedness” in their treatment of the allusions.</p> Farzaneh Farahzad, Ehsan Zaheri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Lexical and Paratextual Differences in Self-Retranslation <p>Based on Berman’s retranslation hypothesis, the present article aimed at detecting and explaining the differences between the first and second Persian translations of two English novels (<em>Nineteen Eighty-Four</em> and <em>Lord Jim</em>) by the same Persian translator (Saleh Hosseini) over a decade at lexical and paratextual levels. To this end, first the translations and retranslations were compared with each other and both were compared with the source texts. Then, an interview was conducted with the translator in a bid to triangulate the data. The results indicated that the self-retranslations went through substantial changes at both levels. The results demonstrated that both self-retranslations were more target language oriented. Therefore, the results were in contradiction with Berman’s retranslation hypothesis which holds that retranslations are closer to the source texts than first translations. In fact, self-retranslations were found to be more natural, hence more target language oriented, explained by the translator as a result of a new understanding of the source texts intended meaning, target language and target reader. However, the contradiction might be due to the fact that in this article self-retranslation was investigated, and not retranslation in its general sense. So, it can be concluded that self-retranslation may not follow Berman’s hypothesis.</p> Farzaneh Farahzad, Sajjad Tahmasbi Boveiri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Resistance in Translations Published as White-Cover Books <p>The present study was an attempt to find out how the activist Persian translations published illegally as White-Cover books were resistant to the target culture. The study was based on Baker’s (2006) argument about where to look for the activist translators’ political work, i.e., the text selection and framing methods, including paratexts, timing of release, and place of release. For the study of the paratexts, Pellatt’s (2013) typology was adapted to cover all the paratextual elements included in the corpus. The study showed that resistance was manifest in all the areas examined, but in different forms. Resistance to censorship was more evident in the text selection and the non-verbal paratexts, whereas resistance to the dominant ideologies and the state was more visible in the verbal paratexts, especially in the prefatorial materials as well as the inclusion or exclusion of the names of the translators.</p> Hussein Mollanazar, Roya Ghaderi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 07 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0430 EVS Patterns, Regulation Strategies and Quality of Persian/English Simultaneous Interpretations <p>A mind-boggling obsession facing the recent interpreting studies is the how and why of ear-voice-span (EVS) regulation during simultaneous interpreting (SI) and its relationship with the quality of SI outputs especially in the case of two asymmetrical languages. The present case study aimed at investigating the EVS patterns and strategies used during Persian-to-English (henceforth P-E) (SOV-SVO) and English-to-Persian (henceforth E-P) (SVO-SOV) SI. Moreover, it sought to find out the relationship between EVS choices and quality of simultaneous interpretations. In doing so, live data were collected from a professional interpreter in two interlingually held conferences. The analysis of transcribed and synchronized audio files revealed the adoption of a wide range of linguistic and temporal EVS choices and regulation strategies. The results indicated that EVS patterns in the SOV-to-SVO direction were generally longer than vice versa. The quality assessment of interpretations by two raters with reference to Buhler's (1986) rating scale revealed that the choice of EVS strategies had a direct impact on the overall EVS length, imposed cognitive demand and, subsequently, quality of interpretations. On implication side, the study suggests the incorporation of detected strategies into the interpreter training syllabus.</p> Karim Shabani, Parima Khazaei ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 07 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0430