https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/issue/feed Translation Studies Quarterly 2020-08-14T22:15:37+0430 Hussein Mollanazar mollanazar@translationstudies.ir Open Journal Systems https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/812 The Renarration of the Verbal and Non-verbal Sites in the Multimodal Narrative 2020-08-04T07:41:24+0430 Parina Ghomi parina.ghomi@gmail.com Farzaneh Farahzad farahzade@atu.ac.ir <p>Drawing on Baker’s (2006) narrative theory and the notion of reframing together with the concept of multimodality in audiovisual translation (AVT), the present study focused on interlingual dubbing of animations broadcasted from the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) to investigate the renarration of the verbal and non-verbal sites in the multimodal narrative.&nbsp; To this end, the study applied Multimodal Narrative Analysis (MNA) introduced by unknown (forthcoming) to see which sites are tampered with in the process of constructing reality in the IRIB’s narrative. The results of the study suggested that the IRIB exploits all narrative sites in the process of multimodal renarration. It further revealed that non-verbal sites were reframed more than verbal sites in order to accentuate, undermine or modify certain narratives in the target language (TL).</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/811 Manipulation in Conference Simultaneous Interpreting 2020-07-26T01:38:16+0430 Mandana Noori Ghale Naseri mandana.noori70@gmail.com Farzaneh Farahzad farahzadatu@yahoo.com <p>This study investigated the phenomenon of manipulation in conference simultaneous interpreting. The corpus of this research comprised of randomly selected speeches in various conferences held in Iran including (OGC) The Oil &amp; Gas Conference in 2005, (IPF) Iran Petrochemical Forum conference in 2011, (IGEC) Iran Gas Export Conference in 2004, and (MEGAS) Mega Oil &amp; gas projects conference. Particular factors which influence interpreting in the simultaneous mode such as time limits, memory restrictions, speed of speech, or interpreter’s lack of knowledge about the topic of speech and so on, resulted in manifestations of manipulative strategies including cases of substitution, deletion, and addition and multiplied manifestations of these strategies in sentence, as the unit of analysis in this research, which seemingly were not consciously adopted.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/809 Cognitive Phraseological Variations in Terminology of Public International Law and Its Application in Translation into Farsi 2020-07-31T22:57:18+0430 seyed mohammad hossein mirzadeh interprete3@gmail.com <p>For the past twenty years, “phraseology” has been considered a very important topic of study for various specialized languages. The linguistic view that used to see phraseology such as “idiom researches and lexicography classifying various kinds of idiomatic expressions” has changed meaningfully. Nowadays, thanks to these changes, the new view is focused on identifying and classifying phraseology as well as applying them to research in theory. That is why we would do well to try to define new horizons of phraseology in different specialized languages. The language of interest here is the prescriptive and descriptive language of international law instruments. We should consider this language as the normative language of judges, legislators, courts and international lawyers. These practitioners – who use specific types of phraseology and stable linguistic structures –should perhaps adhere to the use of a professional language that conforms to recognized standards of normative rules. This paper, therefore, tries to define the main relations between phraseology studies and IL Latin expressions and their systematic-semantic equivalences in languages with different roots like Farsi.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/808 Critical Translation and ESP Textbooks Evaluation: The Case of Extra-Linguistic Sub-Competence Needs in Legal and Journalistic Sources 2020-07-24T21:31:52+0430 Hussein Mollanazar hus.mollanazar@gmail.com Shirin Salimi Beni salimi.sh25@yahoo.com <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The present study attempted to evaluate course books to investigate whether they meet students’ needs. It also aimed at comparing legal and journalistic back ground knowledge of two groups, undergraduate translation students and legal and journalism students. To address the issues, data were collected from 8 most popular legal and journalism translation books as well as 8 legal and journalism ESP books. Evaluation of different specialized sources in ESP program, in spite of ancient program objectives, shows that it cannot train translator! Most of law and journalism field graduates have no background of translation knowledge and translation students have not enough knowledge of specialized fields or at least do not learn how to find necessary information. Besides basic translation knowledge, ESP students need extra-linguistic knowledge to understand specialized texts. As different studies of PACTE group declare, specialized translation includes knowledge of the world as well as knowledge of the field, and knowledge of translation.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/805 Cognitive Phraseological Variations in Terminology of Public International Law and Its Application in Translation into Farsi 2020-07-18T10:16:09+0430 seyed mohammad hossein mirzadeh interprete3@gmail.com <p>For the past twenty years, “phraseology” has been considered a very important topic of study for various specialized languages. The linguistic view that used to see phraseology such as “idiom researches and lexicography classifying various kinds of idiomatic expressions” has changed meaningfully. Nowadays, thanks to these changes, the new view is focused on identifying and classifying phraseology as well as applying them to research in theory. That is why we would do well to try to define new horizons of phraseology in different specialized languages. The language of interest here is the prescriptive and descriptive language of international law instruments. We should consider this language as the normative language of judges, legislators, courts and international lawyers. These practitioners – who use specific types of phraseology and stable linguistic structures –should perhaps adhere to the use of a professional language that conforms to recognized standards of normative rules. This paper, therefore, tries to define the main relations between phraseology studies and IL Latin expressions and their systematic-semantic equivalences in languages with different roots like Farsi.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/804 Extended Metaphor in the Glorious Quran Through Translation 2020-07-31T22:51:27+0430 Mohammad Yazdani mohammadyazdaniets@yahoo.com <p>The article aims to investigate the strategies used in the translation of extended metaphors as an under-researched structural observable feature from Arabic into English, with particular reference to Quranic examples. To this end, Quranic verses illustrating the point were sampled, analyzed and discussed so as to discover the most and the least applied strategies based on Newmark’s (1988) classification of metaphor translation strategies and to suggest translation problem-solving solutions. In this regard, three translations of the Glorious Qur’an, in addition to two authentic and authoritative Qur’anic exegeses, were consulted in an attempt to determine the extended metaphors together with their intended meanings. To do so, the researchers evaluated the procedures in the fifty cases comprising the extended metaphors. The researchers appended an additional procedure to the selected model’s existing categories, namely ‘<em>explicating a part of the metaphor or the simile</em>’. This study demonstrated that extended metaphors in the Holy Qur’an, as a structural feature, presented particular challenges for the translators. The analysis revealed that the translators varied in their ‎approaches to translating extended metaphors, which demanded great effort to render them faithfully in the target language. Furthermore, in terms of the Qur’anic context, not all the translations are fully accepted. We found out that the most frequently applied strategy in translating the extended metaphors was ‘reproducing the same image in the target language literally’ (75.4%) and that the least frequently applied one was ‘translation of metaphor (or simile) by simile plus sense’ (0.5%).</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/803 Translation and Cultural Memory in Roald Dahl’s Books of Childhood 2020-08-14T15:00:37+0430 Bahar Eshraq beshraq2006@gmail.com <p><em>With a cultural turn of translation some translation scholars have attempted to intersect translation with Juri Lotman’s cultural semiotic approach (Toury 1994</em>;<em> Torop 2000, 2008, 2014). The highly important issue in Lotman’s perspective is the intersection of culture, translation and memory. Not only offering a semiotic theory of culture in which translation plays a significant role but also he refers to a term, cultural memory, which could be interrelated with translation. Adopted by Jan Assmann (1995, 2008), Cultural Memory is believed to be borrowed from Lotman’s theory. (Tamm 2015; 2019). Through the lenses of Lotman’s approach, Astrid Erll (2011) also introduces social, material and mental dimensions for the rhetoric of cultural memory. This paper has attempted to examine the cultural memory (re)construction in the target culture through Roald Dahl’s Persian translated books of childhood. From the angles of Erll’s semiotic approach to cultural memory and Peeter Torop’s translation semiotics, both inspired from Lotman’s perspective, it has intended to investigate the role of Roald Dahl Persian translated children’s books in the target culture. </em></p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/802 کاربردی¬شدگی معنی تحلیلی بر رفتارهای منظورشناختی نقش¬نماهای تفصیلی و تقابلی در گفتمان نقد ترجمه: 2020-07-12T19:33:41+0430 Ali Mohammad Mohammadi a-mohammadi@araku.ac.ir <p><strong>This explorative study investigated the pragmatic functions of elaborative and contrastive discourse markers from a metadiscursive perspective. The metadiscursive investigations have revealed that the widespread difference between propositional meaning and various flexible pragmatic behaviors of discourse markers results in ambiguity in human communication. The creative, complex, multi-layered context of discourse structure is the source of this flexible pragmatic behavior. This, in turn, results in pragmaticalization of discourse markers in social contexts. During this process, the propositional meaning of discourse markers is replaced with novel interactive meanings and functions in discourse.&nbsp; The exploration of pragmaticalzation system would give rise to an effective resource of knowledge, expertise, and skill in education, research, and learning in our scientific, educational, and administrative environments. Applying Fraser (2006) and Brinton (1996) models in the analysis of randomly sampled translation criticisms during three decades, this descriptive and qualitative study revealed that all examples of elaborative and contrastive discourse markers experienced the process of pragmaticalization. Consequently, a six plane functional, pragmatic, and interactive, model for monitoring discourse structure in translation criticism genre was explored on the basis of flexible contextual variables. Moreover, this process of pragmaticalization was observed in three discoursal domains of ideation, action, and information. Therefore, the pragmatic functions of these meta-discursive elements is under the influence of the context resulting in a lot of complicated, novel, imaginative, and productive inferences. </strong></p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/800 Validating a CIPP-based Inventory to Evaluate Graduate-Level Technical English Translation Courses 2020-07-09T12:42:25+0430 سعید رنجبر saeed.ranjbar43@gmail.com <p>One of the most important factors influencing a valid evaluation is the existence of an appropriate instrument that can accurately evaluate a given program. The purpose of this study was to design a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate BA-level English translation program in Iran. This study was conducted in 2019 and 2020 at different English language faculties in Iran offering BA programs of English translation for more than 10 years. For the purpose of the study, having consulted the existing sources on Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP) evaluation model, a researcher-made inventory was developed. The next stage included assessing the validity of the instrument through expert judgment and measuring its content validity index. Finally, the reliability of the questionnaire, was estimated by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficient and Guttmann's split-half coefficient. The final edition of the questionnaire was then distributed among 147 junior and senior undergraduate students of English translation in six different faculties. According to the results. The observed Cronbach's alpha for the instrument was .89 and the observed Guttman's split-half coefficient was .78.in addition, confirmatory factor analysis was done to indorse the construct validity of the inventory. Accordingly, it was concluded that the inventory enjoys desirable validity and reliability and thus, can be used for evaluating different technical translation courses.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/798 رایانش ابری در ترجمه: موردپژوهشی ارائه دهندگان خدمات زبانی در ایران 2020-08-05T21:30:41+0430 maryam poorgalavi m.poorgalavi@gmail.com <p>رایانش ابری نوعی رایانش مبتنی بر اینترنت است که بر کسب و کارهای مختلف تخصصی به خصوص ترجمه، تاثیر قابل ­ملاحظه ­ای گذاشته است. علیرغم پژوهش ­های مختلفی که در این زمینه در دنیا انجام شده، هیچ­گونه مطالعه ­ای تاکنون بر روی این سیستم­ ها در ایران صورت نگرفته است. بنابراین، این مقاله با معرفی و توصیف سیستم­ های ابری مدیریت ترجمه، به بررسی سیستم ­های ثبت سفارش ترجمه در ایران، میزان استفاده از سیستم­ های ابری در ترجمه و نیز مزایای استفاده از آنها می­ پردازد و پیشنهاد می­ کند این سیستم ­ها به جای سیستم ­های مبتنی بر مدل خطی ترجمه در شرکت­ های ترجمه ایران مورد استفاده قرار گیرند. یافته­ های این مقاله نشان می­ دهد که اکثر ارائه­دهندگان خدمات زبانی در ایران از وجود سیستم­ های خودکار ترجمه به طور عام، و سیستم­ های ابری به طور خاص، آگاه نیستند یا درباره استفاده از آنها تردید دارند. این در حالی است که سیستم ابری را می ­توان به طور موثری به خصوص در پروژه ­های مشارکتی ترجمه استفاده کرد و با استفاده از آن هزینه خدمات ترجمه و زمان انجام پروژه ها را کاهش داد و به این ترتیب، کیفیت بالای ترجمه را نیز تضمین کرد.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/795 Self-translations of Avicenna into Persian 2020-07-31T22:40:14+0430 Mohammadreza Hosseini shakiba11@yahoo.com <p>Avicenna lived in a period (the late 4<sup>th</sup> and early 5<sup>th</sup> centuries AH) in which Arabic was the well-established language of science in the Islamic world and Modern Persian was on the verge of prominent evolutions. In such an environment, Avicenna self-translated two of his own Arabic books which have had a significant but neglected role in scientific writings in Modern Persian. The present paper is the analysis of impacts self-translations of Avicenna into Persian on Persian terminology and prose.&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/793 مقایسة کیفیت ترجمة اخبار سياسي انگلیسی به فارسی توسط مترجم گوگل و اِیس 2020-08-14T22:15:37+0430 Abdullah Sarani Sarani_ling@hamoon.usb.ac.ir <p>The increasing use of machine translation in the recent decades has necessitated the assessment of its quality to both evaluate the importance of machine translation performance and to upgrade its efficiency. To achieve this goal, the current study examined the quality of Google Translate and ACE Translator in translating political English web pages into Persian. Researchers randomly selected 20 paragraphs including 70 sentences and 1,523 words from CNN news on the internet. Two professional translators rated the quality of machine translations made by two machines based on Waddington’s (2001) model. Results indicated that translations of Google Translate and Ace Translator received the same score in their translation quality. These two machine translators produce translations full of semantic errors and can only yield a general meaning of the text and the extraction of exact meaning and the production of suitable equivalents still relies on utilizing human translators. The main problem is that these two translators mostly use the first meaning of the word which is the most frequent meaning usually leading to literal translation. These two machine translators cannot recognize the exact discoursal and pragmatic features that shape the meaning of a text. This research determined how identifying errors in machine translations can help as a starting point for assessing the quality of machine translation and improving its output.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/788 The Role of Ideology in Dubbing Multimedia Products 2020-05-29T22:33:29+0430 جواد فقیه پرور javadfaghihparvar@yahoo.com <p>The present article intends to investigate the impact of target dominant ideology and the strategies that translators apply in the process of dubbing. To this end, fifty episodes of an American TV series entitled "The House of Cards", which had been dubbed into Persian and shown on the IRIB <em>Namayesh</em> channel, were analyzed. All the dialogues were examined contrastively and their translation strategies were categorized based on Davies' (2003) translation strategies. Then, their intercultural factors were studied by using the Wang and Shen's (1999) classification. The results revealed that <em>Transformation</em> has been the most frequently (33%) used strategy. Also, ethical interferences and political influences were two influential cultural factors in the process of dubbing this series. The current study shows that dubbed movies are strictly monitored due to political, socio-cultural, ideological, and religious considerations.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/784 An analysis into Metalanguage of English Morphosyntax in English-Persian Translation Process: A Mixed-Methods Study 2020-07-09T12:18:49+0430 Seyyed Amir Hossein Sarkeshikian sarkeshikian@qom-iau.ac.ir Farid Parvaneh faridparvaneh@gmail.com Zeinab Beyranvand zeynabsans@gmail.com <p>This study aimed to investigate the contribution of English-Persian translation students' metalinguistic knowledge of English to their translation performance. To that end, a sequential mixed-method research design (i.e., QUAN → QUAL) was employed. For this purpose, 39 senior students that were majoring in English translation were selected through convenience sampling. In the quantitative phase, a metalinguistic knowledge test (MLKT) and a translation test (TT) were administered to the participants in order to measure their metalanguage of English and English-Persian translation performance, respectively. Then, the participants were divided into two groups (high-metalanguage and low-metalanguage) based on the median. Finally, for the purpose of confirming the quantitative results, the two groups were asked to verbalize their thoughts about the translation work, while translating twenty-five English sentences into Persian. The independent-samples t-test indicated that there was a significant difference between the high- and low-metalanguage groups in TT performance. However, the results of four regression analyses showed that MLKT could not predict any variance of TT. Finally, the analysis of TAP data manifested the lack of explicit knowledge of English morphosyntax on the part of both high- and low-metalanguage groups. &nbsp;The findings of this study are discussed and implications are offered for translation trainers and researchers.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/785 The Relationship between Total MI Score and Consecutive Interpreting Performance in Iranian Male and Female Trainee Interpreters 2020-07-09T12:15:13+0430 Zahra Golshahi zgolshahy@yahoo.com Gholamreza Tajvidi Tajvidi@ppars.com <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This empirical descriptive study aims at finding a relationship between Iranian trainee interpreters' total MI (Multiple Intelligences) score and gender and their consecutive interpreting performance. The researcher has always encountered superiority of female trainees in consecutive interpreting classes and wanted to find out if there exists any relationship between the trainees' gender and their consecutive interpreting performance. And as learning styles differ in individuals due to the difference in their intelligences, an MI test is run to measure their total score in MI. First a standard test of General English (IELTS) was administered to homogenize the trainees. 113 participants who were all undergraduate students of English Translation took part in this study. At last 109 of them were chosen for the study. The Pearson correlation shows a significant correlation between total MI score in female interpreter trainees and consecutive interpreting performance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/783 Proper Nouns in Translation from English into Persian: A Case Study of Classic English Novels 2020-05-29T21:04:29+0430 Roya Ebadi royaebadi23@gmail.com <p>Proper nouns play an important role, particularly in literary texts, so their translation requires careful attention by literary translators. The focus of the present paper is on the translation strategies applied to render proper nouns in classic novels translated from English into Persian. For this purpose, Vermes’ (2001) translational model was adopted for identifying the translation strategies and Brédart et al.’s (1996) model was used to identify the types of proper nouns. Five classic English novels and one of the best-selling Persian translations of each were selected to be analyzed in this study. The results indicated that <em>transference</em> was the most frequently applied strategy followed by <em>substitution</em>. <em>Modification</em> came next, while <em>translation</em> was the least frequently used strategy based on Vermes’ (2001) model. The results also revealed that among the various categories of proper nouns identified in the novels under study, personal names and geographical names were mostly <em>transferred</em> by Persian translators.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/782 A Study of Persian Translations of Literary Features in Kahlil Gibran’s ‘The Prophet’: (Skopos Theory Framework) 2020-05-29T22:20:21+0430 Gholam-Reza Abbasian gabbasian@gmail.com <p>The primary goal of the current study was to approach the translation of literary features including metaphors and similes in the Persian translations of <em>‘The Prophet’</em> by Kahlil Gibran from Skopos theory lens. To do so, contrastive content analysis of both SL and TL versions of the Book in terms of the target features and Reiss and Vermeer’s (2014) model of Skopos theory of rules of skopos, coherence, and fidelity were followed. Data tabulation and analysis were followed by frequency analysis. The results revealed that in the translation of similes and metaphors from <em>‘The Prophet’</em> into Persian, Elahi Ghomsheie has followed both Skopos and coherent rules more than Daryabandari, however, in terms of fidelity Drayabandari takes priority over Elahi Ghomsheie, which ultimately proves Elahi Ghomsheie as a more successful translator than Daryabandari in total. These findings bear certain massages: the target reader and core message, or in other words, Nord’s “the end justifies the means” is of significance in translations process, and translation strategy selection is a function of both genre type and translator’s professionalism and background expertise.&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/781 Contribution of Translation to Promotion of and Resistance against the Second Pahlavi’s Narrative of Modernization regarding Women 2020-05-29T22:15:19+0430 Mahboubeh Khalili m_kh_tr@yahoo.com Hussein Mollanazar hus.mollanazar@gmail.com <p>The present study aimed at exploring the contribution of translation to promotion of and resistance against the Second Pahlavi’s narrative of modernization regarding women. Baker’s socio-narrative theory (2006) was used as the framework of the study and three English novels, <em>Miss Lonelyhearts, The Wayward Bus, </em>and<em> Bleak House,</em> were selected to be compared with their Persian translations which were published in Iran during a period of five years after the launch of the White Revolution in 1963. The results showed that all three Persian translations contributed to promotion and circulation of both the Second Pahlavi’s narrative of modernization and the narrative of tradition. The Persian translation of <em>Miss Lonelyhearts</em> which was published amid the White Revolution in 1963 contributed to the promotion of the Second Pahlavi’s narrative of modernization. The Persian translation of the novel was temporally framed. Moreover, selective appropriation was used to propagate the importance of not getting married at a young age, and repositioning of participants was used to take women’s attention to their mental and physical health and to talk about men’s aggression toward women. The Persian translations of <em>The Wayward Bus</em> and <em>Bleak House</em>, which were published in 1965 and 1967 respectively, both were temporally framed. But the Persian translations of these novels resisted the Second Pahlavi’s narrative of modernization by using reframing devices of selective appropriation, repositioning of participants, and labeling to downgrade, blame, and humiliate socially and politically active women.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/779 کاربردی¬شدگی معنی A Pragmatic Analysis of the Functions of Elaborative and Contrastive Discourse Markers in Translation Criticism: 2020-05-29T21:49:37+0430 Ali Mohammad Mohammadi a-mohammadi@araku.ac.ir <p><strong>This explorative study investigated the pragmatic functions of elaborative and contrastive discourse markers from a metadiscursive perspective. The metadiscursive investigations have revealed that the widespread difference between propositional meaning and various flexible pragmatic behaviors of discourse markers results in ambiguity in human communication. The creative, complex, multi-layered context of discourse structure is the source of this flexible pragmatic behavior. This, in turn, results in pragmaticalization of discourse markers in social contexts. During this process, the propositional meaning of discourse markers is replaced with novel interactive meanings and functions in discourse.&nbsp; The exploration of pragmaticalzation system would give rise to an effective resource of knowledge, expertise, and skill in education, research, and learning in our scientific, educational, and administrative environments. Applying Fraser (2006) and Brinton (1996) models in the analysis of randomly sampled translation criticisms during three decades, this descriptive and qualitative study revealed that all examples of elaborative and contrastive discourse markers experienced the process of pragmaticalization. Consequently, a six plane functional, pragmatic, and interactive, model for monitoring discourse structure in translation criticism genre was explored on the basis of flexible contextual variables. Moreover, this process of pragmaticalization was observed in three discoursal domains of ideation, action, and information. Therefore, the pragmatic functions of these meta-discursive elements is under the influence of the context resulting in a lot of complicated, novel, imaginative, and productive inferences. </strong></p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/778 A Pragmatic Analysis of the Functions of Elaborative and Contrastive Discourse Markers in Translation Criticism: 2020-05-03T01:26:52+0430 Ali Mohammad Mohammadi a-mohammadi@araku.ac.ir <p><strong>This explorative study investigated the pragmatic functions of elaborative and contrastive discourse markers from a metadiscursive perspective. The metadiscursive investigations have revealed that the widespread difference between propositional meaning and various flexible pragmatic behaviors of discourse markers results in ambiguity in human communication. The creative, complex, multi-layered context of discourse structure is the source of this flexible pragmatic behavior. This, in turn, results in pragmaticalization of discourse markers in the context of interactions. During this process, the propositional meaning of discourse markers is replaced with novel interactive meanings and functions in discourse.&nbsp; The exploration of pragmaticalzation system would give rise to an effective resource of knowledge, expertise, and skill in education, research, and learning in our scientific, educational, and administrative environments. Applying Fraser (2006) and Brinton (1996) models in the analysis of randomly sampled translation criticisms during the three decades, this descriptive and qualitative study revealed that all examples of elaborative and contrastive discourse markers experienced the process of pragmaticalization. Consequently, a six plane functional, pragmatic, and interactive, model for monitoring discourse structure in translation criticism genre was explored on the basis of flexible contextual variables. Moreover, this process of pragmaticalization was observed in three discoursal domains of ideation, action, and information. Therefore, the pragmatic functions of these meta-discursive elements is under the influence of the context resulting in a lot of complicated, novel, imaginative, and productive inferences. </strong></p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/777 A corpus-based study of comparing translation and non-translation: the case of Brill and Wikishia Encyclopedia of Islam 2020-08-03T19:37:23+0430 hadi Zare Mirak Abad hadizaremail@yahoo.com saeed ketabi ketabi@fgn.ui.ac.ir <p>The aim of this paper is to compare 4-word lexical bundles used in Wikishia encyclopedia of Islam which is a translation from Persian into English with Brill encyclopedia of Islam produced originally in English. Lexical bundles, defined as recurrent sequences of words – are important building blocks of discourse in spoken and written registers. 4 steps are followed namely extracting lexical bundles from both encyclopedias with the help of wordsmith tools, excluding the bundles that are <span class="fontstyle0">tied to the propositional content of particular source texts</span>&nbsp; such as time, place people, objects and actions, selecting the top ten most frequent bundles, and an in-depth analysis of the selected bundles by comparing the frequencies and the contexts in which they are used. The results showed that in spite of similarities between the two corpora in their use of lexical bundles, differences are also found. The differences in the use of lexical bundles are rooted in: cultural considerations, tendency of translations to using lexical bundles, and inclination of translations toward explicitness.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/775 The Relationship between Explicit Knowledge of Source Language and EFL Learners’ Translation Ability 2020-04-18T23:57:29+0430 Fatemeh Safari safari.fateme1354@gmail.com <p>Globalization progresses at exchanging flow of information in different fields: in politics, economics, education…without border and there is a growing demand for communicating scientific knowledge to the public in different forms. Maybe it is because of globalization that requires people to be equipped with advanced communication skills in order to be able to cope with the pace of life. Hence it made &nbsp;translation to be considered as a practical and efficient tool for: “recognizing of the latest scientific and technical achievements, exchanging cultural, artistic and literary information, recognizing economic and political situations, economic exchanges and trade, knowing about ancients and our ancestors’ thoughts” (Mohammadian &amp; Hashemi Toroujeni, 2017, p. 23). Therefore, in this highly interconnected network there is an interesting call for translation of the subjects into the language of public readers in any country. The importance of grammatical knowledge and its effectiveness in translation quality motivated the researcher to run this study and examine the relationship between explicit grammatical knowledge and translation ability. It is clear that grammar is an area that may merit some level of explicit teaching in English translation curriculum, particularly if explicit knowledge is in the grammar of source language. So the explicit grammatical knowledge and translation ability of 60 translation students at Islamic Azad University gathered through the tests revealed a moderately significant correlation. On the other hand, the explicit knowledge of Persian grammar provides a significant impact on the quality of translation from English to Persian among Iranian undergraduate English translation students.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/774 A Tentative Model of Renarration in Audiovisual Translation 2020-07-31T21:24:33+0430 Parina Ghomi parina.ghomi@gmail.com Farzaneh Farahzad farahzade@atu.ac.ir <p>The present article draws on Baker’s socio-narrative theory and the concept of multimodality to develop a tentative model of renarration in AVT. Based on the multimodal nature of audiovisual texts and the interplay between the verbal and the non-verbal channels, the model considers the audiovisual narrative to be represented from four channels of audio-verbal, audio-nonverbal, visual-verbal and visual-nonverbal. It shows that AVT extends beyond the verbal channel to (re)construct reality. The meaning which emerges from the interplay of these four channels is (re)narrated in the TL. The process of renarration passes through the filter of AVT institute’s narrative location. AV renarration, therefore, not only represents but also reconstructs reality in TL. The article finally provides a comprehensive list of the sites through which narrative channels are represented.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/769 A Study of Persian Translations of Literary Features in Kahlil Gibran’s ‘The Prophet’: (Skopos Theory Framework) 2020-04-14T23:52:06+0430 Gholam-Reza Abbasian gabbasian@gmail.com <p>The primary goal of the current study was to approach the translation of literary features including metaphors and similes in the Persian translations of <em>‘The Prophet’</em> by Kahlil Gibran from Skopos theory lens. To do so, contrastive content analysis of both SL and TL versions of the Book in terms of the target features and Reiss and Vermeer’s (2014) model of Skopos theory of rules of skopos, coherence, and fidelity were followed. Data tabulation and analysis were followed by frequency analysis. The results revealed that in the translation of similes and metaphors from <em>‘The Prophet’</em> into Persian, Elahi Ghomsheie has followed both Skopos and coherent rules more than Daryabandari, however, in terms of fidelity Drayabandari takes priority over Elahi Ghomsheie, which ultimately proves Elahi Ghomsheie as a more successful translator than Daryabandari in total. These findings bear certain massages: the target reader and core message, or in other words, Nord’s “the end justifies the means” is of significance in translations process, and translation strategy selection is a function of both genre type and translator’s professionalism and background expertise.&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/767 Western literature in Iran: Iranian Literary Publishers’ Criteria for Choosing Western Literary Works to be translated in Iran 2020-05-01T17:34:27+0430 Roya Monsefi monsefi_roya@yahoo.com Reza Yalsharzeh reyalsharzeh@gmail.com Ali Salmanpour alisalmanpour.MA@gmail.com <p>The role of translation in the emergence of the modern novel in European style in the Iranian literary system has been studied for a long time. However, translating western literary works in the Iranian literary system is a complicated process involving many agents. One of these agents is the publisher who plays an important role in the publication and circulation of books in society. &nbsp;Regarding the importance of publishers, the present study intends to investigate the Iranian publishers’ criteria in choosing literary works for translation in Iran. Therefore, ten outstanding Iranian publishers were chosen to participate in an interview, and their criteria for choosing western literary works for translation were analyzed qualitatively. The findings of this study suggest that factors such as writer’s fame, international prizes won by the work, movies made out of the work and bestseller works are important determining factors that the publishers consider in their publication. However, a close look at these criteria reveals that they are not devoid of economic rationality, since a publishing house is, after all, an economic enterprise.&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/763 Working Memory and Note Quantity: Their Relationship with Consecutive Interpreting Performance 2020-05-03T12:09:49+0430 Mojtaba Amini m.amini257@yahoo.com Azizollah Dabaghi dabaghi@fgn.ui.ac.ir Dariush Nejadansari ansari@fgn.ui.ac.ir <p>This study examined the association between working memory (WM) and note quantity and their relationship with English-Persian consecutive interpreting (CI) performance in order to evaluate the predictive efficiency of the variables for CI performance. To follow the objectives of the study, two WM tasks (Digit Span, and Reading Span) and one CI task were administered to 30 MA translation students. The results indicated a positive and significant relationship between reading span and note quantity. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between both measures of WM and CI performance as well as between note quantity and CI performance. Further, the results of the regression analysis indicated that both measures of WM were predictors of CI performance while, the variable “note quantity” failed to be a predictor.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/762 The Backgrounds of Translation Movement Dynamism in Sahl bin Haroun’s Era 2020-05-03T11:44:04+0430 Ahmad Lamei ahmad.lamei@yahoo.com <p>a</p> <p>During the centuries, the Arabic culture and literature experienced significant changes due to political, economic, and cultural relations with civilized countries, especially Iran, which its heyday of which coincided with the advent of Islam, the introduction of the Arab world to the sciences and knowledge of other nations, as well as the translation movement in the Abbasid era. The famous Persian scholar and translator of this age, Sahl bin Haroun, shone in various fields, especially in literature in the Arab society to the extent that scholars like jahez and Ibn al-Nadim called him “the Bozorgmehr of Islam.” He presented Persian society and Arabic culture with valuable Persian works and translating many books. This research tries to study the backgrounds of the translation movement and the influence of Persians in the excellence of Arabic literature with an emphasis on explaining the role of Sahl ibn Haroun using a descriptive-analytical method. The peak of intellectual interaction between Arabs and Persians was during the third and fourth Hijri centuries, as the Arab scholars used the wisdom, proverbs, tales, and allegories of Persian scholars and sages in their works. The skillful writing style and delicate language of Persians employed Arabic poetry and prose as the representative of their thoughts and feelings during that era. The authority of Persian figures in the court of Al-Ma’mun, their companionship of Caliphs, and the Arabs’ distance from Calipha’s court were among the cases that affected the influence of Persian culture on the literature of this era</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/758 Applying Gideon Theory Norms Theory to Qualitative Evaluation of Translation of Persian Poems into Arabic (Case Study: Poetry of Forough Farrokhzad) 2020-02-25T20:08:14+0330 Ali Afzali ali.afzali@ut.ac.ir Akram Madani madani58@ut.ac.ir <p>Applying Gideon's Theory of Norms in Qualitative Assessment of Translation of Forough Farrokhzad Poems in Arabic. Translation acts as one of the agents of thought change as a bridge for the transmission of thoughts from different languages to one another. Translation has long attracted the attention of translators, and its translation or non-translation has always been the subject of controversy among translation theorists. Poetry is in its most succinct form a language whose language is often not explicit but implicit and moving all of its semantic layers to the target language is very difficult. In translating poetry into Arabic, Iranian poets have moved on to other literary works. In this era we are seeing more translators trying to translate contemporary Persian poetry. Many of these poems have been translated into Arabic by translators. This method deals with the translation process or the act of translation itself. His theory points to the literary formats that exist in any particular culture and one of its main achievements was that Attention to the relationship between the individual texts of origin and the destination focused on the relationships that exist between the destination texts themselves .the main result of the qualitative evaluation of Abdul Moneim's translation to Arabic Indicates that his work It has an acceptance in the destination culture But it is far from sufficient in the Farsi</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/759 Simultaneous Interpreting Competence 2020-05-01T15:26:09+0430 Abouzar Oraki a.oraki@vru.ac.ir Gholam-Reza Tajvidi tajvidi@atu.ac.ir <p>The concept of competence in Translation Studies came to the fore in the 1990s although the first proposals were put forward in early 1970s.This term became so important that many universities around the world offering Translation/Interpreting programs tried to develop their curricula accordingly, a move forward that is still going on globally. However, what has been rather under-researched is the concept of Simultaneous Interpreting Competence. As a narrow part of a doctoral dissertation, the present study tried to develop an Interpreting Competence Model and apply it to professional simultaneous interpreters in Iran. To this end, the study included a conceptual and an empirical phase. In the conceptual phase, different translation competence models from the 1970s up to the present were compared and a Translation Competence Model was designed. Similarly, different interpreting competence models from 1930 up to the present were analyzed and an Interpreting Competence Model was developed. The conceptual phase concluded with the common and distinct competences required for professional translators and interpreters. In the empirical phase, the Simultaneous Interpreting Competence Model developed in the conceptual phase was applied to professional Interpreters. The case study included simultaneous interpreters from two Iranian news channels, PRESS TV and IRINN. The findings indicated that Iranian interpreters were lagging behind in certain sub-competences.</p> 2020-06-24T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/757 The Quality of the Translation of the Political English Web Pages into Persian: The Case of Google Translate and ACE Translator 2020-02-10T14:02:47+0330 Abdullah Sarani Sarani_ling@hamoon.usb.ac.ir Ali Malmir malmir@hum.ikiu.ac.ir Sedighe Hosseini sedigheh.hosseini@gmail.com <p>The increasing use of machine translation in the recent decades has necessitated the assessment of its quality to both evaluate the importance of machine translation performance and to upgrade its efficiency. To achieve this goal, the current study examined the quality of Google Translate and ACE Translator in translating political English web pages into Persian. Researchers randomly selected 20 paragraphs including 70 sentences and 1,523 words from CNN news on the internet. Two professional translators rated the quality of machine translations made by two machines based on Waddington’s (2001) model. Results indicated that translations of Google Translate and Ace Translator received the same score in their translation quality. These two machine translators produce translations full of semantic errors and can only yield a general meaning of the text and the extraction of exact meaning and the production of suitable equivalents still relies on utilizing human translators. The main problem is that these two translators mostly use the first meaning of the word which is the most frequent meaning usually leading to literal translation. These two machine translators cannot recognize the exact discoursal and pragmatic features that shape the meaning of a text. This research determined how identifying errors in machine translations can help as a starting point for assessing the quality of machine translation and improving its output.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/755 Validation of Automated Scores of Human Translation of Legal Texts against Non-test Indicators of Translation Competence 2020-02-15T11:23:23+0330 Somayyeh Karami s.karami@fgn.ui.ac.ir Dariush Nejadansari d.nejadansari@fgn.ui.ac.ir Akbar Hesabi a.hesabi@fgn.ui.ac.ir <p>This study tries to explore the validity of lexical Automated Translation Quality Evaluation Understudy Metrics (ATQEUM) in scoring Certified Translator Accreditation Tests in Islamic Republic of Iran as an instance of legal texts. This is conducted against non-test indicators of translation competence, including the participants records of their scores in “The Translation of Documents and Deeds I and II” courses, their average score of all courses of practical translation nature, and their BA GPA score in Translation Studies Major. Although, they have not revealed a significant correlation with the nontest indicators of translation competence, they have had a highly significant correlation with the scores granted by human expert scorers on the two sample tests. Therefore, according to all the data collected and analyzed, it has ultimately been concluded that a collection of “-PER, -TERp-A, BLUE-1, NIST-1, ROUGE-1, GTM-1” lexical ATQEUMs (including all various lexical similarity-based techniques of edit distance, precision, recall, and F-measure) can be considered as the optimal translation meta-evaluation set to score certified translator accreditation tests.</p> 2020-06-24T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/752 The Importance of Recognizing Discourse and Nodal Point of the Text in Translation Based on Coleman Barks’ Translation of The Masnavi of Molana 2020-02-07T23:41:57+0330 shima bagheri ahranjani sbagheriahranjani@gmail.com <p>Critics of Coleman Barks have considered various explanations for the reasoning behind the alteration of Rumi’s work. The most critical of these explanations are the lack of knowledge in Farsi language, the Culture and religion of Rumi and a purposeful/tendentious distortion of Islamic elements. In this research, we provide evidence against these claims through Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe’s “Discourse Theory and their notion of Nodal Point” to show that the most fundamental mistake of Coleman Barks is misrecognizing the nodal point in all of the works of Rumi. deconstruction of the allegories has led to the altering mystical symbols and rituals into tangible objects. This in turn has led to an inevitable distortion by Coleman Barks and his subsequent criticism. Based on his own discourse and the discourse of his audience, Coleman Barks has tried to clarify his reasoning behind his translations of Rumi’s poetry. To prove this hypothesis, we have analyzed his translations of Rumi’s “The Story of The Reed”.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/747 تحلیل چهار ترجمه انگلیسی از گزیده اشعار بوستان سعدی با استفاده از نظریه کتفورد 2020-02-09T01:21:26+0330 Enayat A. Shabani eshabani@tums.ac.ir Nafiseh Emadi nafise.emadi@gmail.com Fatemeh Daftari daftari110@yahoo.co.uk <p><span dir="RTL" lang="FA">هدف این پژوهش، بررسی تطبیقی چهار ترجمه فارسی به انگلیسی گزیده اشعار سعدی، شاعر و نویسنده نامدار ایرانی، که توسط کلارک (۱۸۷۹)، دیوی (۱۸۸۲)، ادواردز (۱۹۱۱)، و ویکنز (۱۹۸۴) انجام شده­اند، &nbsp;با استفاده از نظریه کتفورد (۱۹۶۵) است. پنج شعر از بوستان سعدی توسط پژوهشگران به صورت تصادفی انتخاب و هر مصرع پس از بررسی، در دسته­بندی مشخص شده توسط کتفورد (۱۹۶۵) قرار گرفت. یافته­ها حاکی از آن بود که <em>تغییر ساختار</em> بیشترین کاربرد را در ترجمه هر چهار مترجم داشته است، و پس از آن، <em>تغییر صوری در سطح واژگانی</em> و <em>تغییر به واحدی بزرگتر،</em> به ترتیب بیشترین بسامد و کاربرد را داشتند. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که هر چهار مترجم روند مشابهی را در ترجمه اشعار انتخابی اتخاذ کردند. همچنین می­توان نتیجه گرفت که دو تغییر یعنی <em>تغییر ساختار</em> و <em>تغییر صوری در سطح واژگانی</em>، لازمه ترجمه این اشعار بوده­اند چرا که به ترتیب بیشترین استفاده را توسط هر چهار مترجم داشته­اند. نتایج این تحقیق می­تواند در حوزه مطالعات ترجمه و نیز ترجمه شعر به کار آید.</span> <span dir="RTL" lang="FA">&nbsp;</span></p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/746 From Trauma to Text 2020-05-01T15:02:29+0430 Farzaneh Farahzad farahzadatu@yahoo.com Katayoun Davallou katayoun.davallou@gmail.com <p>Psychoanalysis has scarcely been applied as an instrument of textual analysis in literary criticism; even fewer cases of this application, either in terms of product or process analysis, exist within the field of translation studies. Consequently in order to develop a psychoanalytic method of textual analysis suitable to translation, the abundant literature on Lacanian psychoanalysis was first revisited to distinguish those paradigms and principles on text most valid for an analysis of psychotic language. The result was a taxonomy of textual elements, either introduced in or else inferred from the field of Lacanian psychoanalysis: non-sensical, anchoring points, cohesion, heteroglossia, la langue, musical competency, and imagery with their sub-types, all elements which permitted text producers/reproducers to vent out their psychoanalytic conflicts (with the discourse in which the subject has functioned) into construction of texts in a manner not unlike psychoanalysis sessions. As an instrument of analysis, the taxonomy here developed, therefore, has the potential to be applied in its totality or partially and with some adaptations into future researches.</p> 2020-06-24T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/745 A Critique of the English Translation of Dāstān-hā-ye Shahr-e Jangi Based on Reiss's Text-Typological Model 2020-01-25T17:10:14+0330 Salar Manafi Anri salarmanafianari@gmail.com Taher Jahanjouyan tjahanjou@gmail.com <p>The present article aimed at scrutinizing the English translation of <em>Dāstān-hā-ye Shahr-e Jangi</em> (2009), published as <em>A City under Siege</em> (2011). The framework of criticism was the text typological model proposed by Reiss (2000). To this end, within the framework of a descriptive-comparative methodology, the relevant samples were identified and assessed based on the given model. Initially, the merits and demerits of the translation were pinpointed; then, the text-typological, linguistic, and extralinguistic dimensions of the source and target texts were compared. The findings revealed that <em>A City under Siege, </em>as a form-focused text, largely meets Reiss’ requirements for equivalence. Except for minor inadequacies in translating place factor and immediate context, this suggestion is valid inasmuch as the translation has also guaranteed the accuracy of information presented in the ST while retaining the relevant formal and aesthetic elements, which is in compliance with her ‘identifying’ method.</p> 2020-06-29T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/742 Crowdsourcing Translation 2020-01-14T21:35:35+0330 Razieh Azari razieh.azari@etu.unige.ch Marziyeh Khalilizadeh Ganjalikhani marziyehkhalilizadeh@bam.ac.ir Anahita Amirshoja’i amirshojaiana@bam.ac.ir <p>Crowdsourcing Translation (CT) platforms are constantly changing and developing in a dynamic and user-friendly approach. The rapid changes in technology have also accelerated this process. The present study focused on a new platform; a free cloud-based mobile and desktop messaging app called Telegram. Telegram’s technical features were discussed in the study. Then, experience of <em>Iranian Translation Studies</em> channel in using the app as CT platform and its implemented CT workflow were illustrated in details. It was shown that this general platform which has not been designed for crowdsourcing and CT specifically has essential features to be used as CT platform and has already been used as CT platform. Moreover, this app can be considered as a serious potential platform for CT especially in restricted situations.</p> 2020-06-24T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/741 معنا شناسی ترجمه آیات موجز با تکیه بر روابط همنشینی و جانشینی 2020-01-23T18:47:23+0330 مریم حیدری دلفاردی m.h1393d@gmail.com <p>The Holy Quran, the most important prophetic miracle, is the proof of the legitimacy of Islam and the charter of life of all times. This literary masterpiece, in addition to its wise and wonderful selection of words, has reached a peak of eloquence in itself and has many meanings. Understanding the Qur'an requires a better and more familiar understanding of its literary and rhetorical modes that need translation to understand its meaning. It is necessary to remove one of these rhetorical techniques; And in the more republican and in most cases it is necessary to gain a better understanding of the meaning of the verse. Therefore, concise verses have words in them that translate them into a great deal.<br>This semantic research, which is a detailed analytical look at the translation text, explores the reflection of obscure words and examines concise verses in the companionship. The result of this study shows that in some cases some words are substituted for the word (s), but not in all the verses permitted by the word and the accompanying words.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/714 THE DEGREE OF UN/TRANSLATABILITY OF THE QUR’ANIC ITEMS INCLUDING: MUQATA’AT, FIXED EXPRESSIONS, DIVINE NAMES AND QUR’ANIC WORDS 2019-10-12T10:32:55+0330 Aliyeh Darabi aliyeh.darabi@gmail.com <p>Translating the Holy Qur’ᾱn has always been an important issue for the Qur’ᾱn scholars and translators. The present study attempts to determine the degree of un/translatability of the Qur’ᾱnic items (<em>Muqata’at</em>, <em>fixed expressions</em>, <em>divine names</em> and <em>Qur’</em><em>ᾱ</em><em>nic words</em>) through investigating different translations of The Holy Qur′an from Arabic into English. To do this, some steps were taken as follows: a) selecting three English translations of the Holy Qur’ᾱn by different translators from different countries; b) categorizing Qur’ᾱnic items into four groups in order to investigate them under four different categories; c) selecting some samples for each of the items from within more than 60 investigated items and comparing their renderings with the original; d) analyzing the translations and determining the strategies employed by the translators applying: 1. Ordudari and Mollanazar’s (2016) model (based on Aixela’s (1996) model), 2) Two kinds of untranslatability proposed by Catford, 3) Translation strategies and procedures proposed by Munday (2012); e) and finally evaluating the degree of un/translatability of the selected four Qur’ᾱnic items. Since the researcher does not have enough knowledge of Arabic language she applies a mediatory Persian translation of the Holy Qur’ᾱn translated by Bahrampoor. It was found out that except <em>Muqatta</em><em>′</em><em>at</em> – prefixed to 29 Surahs – other Qur’ᾱnic items are translatable to a considerable degree<em>. Literal</em> translation is the most frequently used strategy for translating either phrases or sentences. Other strategies are ‘<em>orthographic adaptation’, ‘word-for-word’, ‘synonym’ (word/phrase) </em>and ‘<em>Intertextual Gloss’</em> for translating ‘<em>Muqatta</em><em>′</em><em>at</em>’<em>, </em>‘<em>Fixed Expressions</em>’<em>, </em>‘<em>Divine Names </em>and <em>Qur’</em><em>ᾱ</em><em>nic words</em>’<em>,</em> respectively.&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/734 The Techno-scientific Turn in Translation Studies 2020-02-10T13:55:04+0330 Saeid Safari saeidsafari85@yahoo.com Hussein Mollanazar mollanazar@atu.ac.ir <p class="western"><span style="font-family: Fujiyama2, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">The article attempts to sensitize translation studies scholars to the potential interdisciplinary relationship between Translation Studies (TS) and Science and Technology Studies (STS). The article argues that the developments in translation technology (i.e. in Translation Machine and CAT tools) have brought about some extra-technical possibilities in translation technology, including the issues of <em>power</em>, <em>gender</em>, <em>ethics</em>, <em>lingua-cultural balance, technological support of languages </em>and<em> economy</em>. Then the authors attempt to argue how STS could provide TS with theoretical and methodological capacities to address these issues.</span></span></p> 2020-02-10T00:00:00+0330 Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/732 مقایسة کیفیت ترجمة اخبار سياسي انگلیسی به فارسی توسط مترجم گوگل و اِیس 2019-10-07T18:00:29+0330 Abdullah Sarani Sarani_ling@hamoon.usb.ac.ir <p>The increasing use of machine translation in the recent decades has necessitated the assessment of its quality to both evaluate the importance of machine translation performance and to upgrade its efficiency. To achieve this goal, the current study examined the quality of Google Translate and ACE Translator in translating political English web pages into Persian. Researchers randomly selected 20 paragraphs including 70 sentences and 1,523 words from CNN news on the internet. Two professional translators rated the quality of machine translations made by two machines based on Waddington’s (2001) model. Results indicated that translations of Google Translate and Ace Translator received the same score in their translation quality. These two machine translators produce translations full of semantic errors and can only yield a general meaning of the text and the extraction of exact meaning and the production of suitable equivalents still relies on utilizing human translators. The main problem is that these two translators mostly use the first meaning of the word which is the most frequent meaning usually leading to literal translation. These two machine translators cannot recognize the exact discoursal and pragmatic features that shape the meaning of a text. This research determined how identifying errors in machine translations can help as a starting point for assessing the quality of machine translation and improving its output.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/728 Translation and Deterritorialization of Local Cultural Elements 2020-02-10T13:55:03+0330 Hoda Zamani Sarzendeh sarzendeh84@gmail.com Hussein Mollanazar mollanazar@atu.a.ir <p class="western"><span style="font-family: Fujiyama2, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">At the age of globalization and with the removal of trade barriers between nations, local cultures also started to be exposed to the world due to the increased cultural interactions. The present study aims at exploring if and how translation can affect the spread of local cultural elements at this age of limitless exchanges. However, in order not to be lost in a process as broad as globalization, the study focuses on ‘deterritorialization’, the under-discussed phase of globalization which closely relates to the function of translation. In a try to capture the vague concept of deterritorialization, and explore the role of translation in this phase, the researcher conducts a case study on a Facebook campaign that takes a stand on a cultural issue. The critical discourse analysis of the translated texts of this page helps to meet the abstract concept of deterritorialization in practice- and indicates the real efficacy of translation in its implementation. Having been interpreted from different angles and for different purposes, the term ‘deterritorialization’ is then redefined, this time from Translation Studies’ perspective and with the purpose of serving some concerns and challenges of the field to which it closely relates.</span></span></p> 2020-02-08T00:00:00+0330 Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/726 "Precedent texts" and Their Translation in Translating Literary Texts from Russian to Persian 2019-09-02T12:07:47+0430 Mahnush Eskandary eskandari.mahnush@gmail.com <p>Precedent texts are sentences, words, or phrases that have been used previously in literary or artistic works and are familiar to a wide range of individuals in a language community. Russian linguist, Karaulov, first came to the issue of "precedent texts" in 1986 and studied aspects of this issue. In this article, after introducing, explaining the features and categorization of "precedent texts", we will deal with the difficulties of translating them in literary texts and then we will investigate and classificate different methods of translating them. To clarify the issue of translating these precedent texts in literary texts, we will examine them in the persian translation of the Chekhov's play "The Seagull" by Serozh Stepanyan. We will see that most of the "precedent texts" used in this literary work(play) are "precedent names", and the translator in translation from Russian language to Persian has used these methods: transliteration and transcription as well as footnote explanations.</p> 2019-09-02T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/725 A Comparative-analytic Study of some Theoretical Issues in Translation Studies via Freud’s Ideas 2019-09-02T12:06:33+0430 Mahmoud Afrouz m.afrouz@fgn.ui.ac.ir <p>Psychoanalysis was founded by the famous psychoanalyst, Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), at the turn of the century. Therefore, the science of psychoanalysis does not have a long history. Moreover, in contrast to the long-standing activity of translating, translation in the form of the discipline called Translation Studies, has a short history. The present article studies some ideas of Freud and investigates the relationship between his ideas and some notions in Translation Studies. In the first part, Freud’s ideas on the unconscious and its formation are explained. Then, the process of new-born-baby’s growth, some mental disorders, and Oedipus complex are reviewed. Finally, the author investigates the relationship between the psychoanalyst’s ideas and some theoretical issues in Translation Studies. To accomplish this, it is attempted to take a look at Freud’s ideas through the spectacles of Translation Studies. Findings indicated that Oedipus complex is comparable to some concepts in translation studies; moreover, it was found that one can abstractly compare the process of new-born-baby’s growth with that of producing translation.</p> 2019-09-02T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/724 بررسی انتقادی ترجمه واژگان مختلف به طنز 2020-05-03T16:20:45+0430 mohammad hosein ravanbakhsh mh_ravanbakhsh@yahoo.com mahmoud mehravaran mehravaran72m@gmail.com <p>In Persian, "Tanz" has three distinct meanings, which are ridicule and words close to it, humor and words close to it, and a kind of literary expression that can be defined as an artistic image of two antonyms.</p> <p>Having a few meanings for humor makes it impossible to translate a specific word into Tanz when translating English words into Persian. Translators who have used Tanz as a Shoukhi have translated the word Humor into tanz, but translators who have embraced the literary meaning of Tanz have translated Satire into tanz.</p> <p>On the other hand, the term Irony, which is close to humor and satire, is sometimes translated into Tanz because of its lack of exact equivalents in Persian. These differences have made it difficult to translate literary concepts into translation.</p> <p>This study proposes that Humor be translated into&nbsp; Shoukhi , Irony only into irony, and Satire into Tanz only, by examining the various meanings of humor in Persian language and literature and the words translated into Tanz.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/722 An Analysis of Discourse Markers in Translation Criticism 2020-01-30T09:58:23+0330 Ali Mohammad Mohammadi a-mohammadi@araku.ac.ir <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>One of the outcomes and foundations of corpus-based explorative studies is designing and introducing discourse analysis models. To achieve this objective, this study tried to analyze the uses of the most effective, complex, and frequent discourse monitoring elements, i.e. discourse markers, in translation criticism in Iran over three decades. The findings of the study resulted in a rectangular framework and model for monitoring discourse in translation criticism. Additionally, different aspects, strengths, weaknesses, and the requirements of this process were analyzed. And finally, pedagogical, scientific, and research implications were discussed.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/718 A Study of the Efficiency of Garces’ Model in the Assessment of Qur'an Translation; A case study of Definition and Cultural Equivalence 2020-01-23T18:50:25+0330 Ensiye Hashemi nc.hashemi65@gmail.com shahriar Niazi shniazi@ut.ac.ir <p>Evaluation of the Qur'an translation has not yet had a comprehensive model. In order to achieve such a model, we can first examine the efficacy of existing evaluation models. In this regard, the present article examines the effectiveness of the Garces model in evaluating the translation of the Qur'an, examining the factors “Definition” and “Cultural equivalence”. This study shows that Garces model is useful for evaluating TT-oriented translations of the Holy Quran, but it should be reviewed in accordance with linguistic features of the Quran. The usage of “Definition” and “Cultural equivalent” can be seen in the translation of Qur'anic terms and Arabic cultural terms, sometimes with borrowing and sometimes in substitution.</p> <p>If there is no equivalent for Quranic term in Persian, the translator will use the technique of definition and explanation associated with the Quranic term. In other situation, which the Persian language has borrowed the Qur'anic term, there is no need to use the above techniques and borrowing will be enough in translation. Since the Islamic culture of Iran is derived from Quran culture and the purpose of Persian translations is to translate the Quran culture in a pure manner, if the cultural equivalent causes no decultration of the source word, the use of cultural equivalents is permissible.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/715 Translatability of Postmodern Features: A Study of Translations of Donald Barthelme’s Short Stories 2019-12-06T04:45:34+0330 Fatemeh Parham parham.atu@gmail.com <p>Postmodern literature has unique features that manifest themselves in the content, in the form or in both form and content. This research first attempts to identify the postmodern features in a corpus of English postmodern literature and examines their possible translatability across language and cultural barriers. To this end, a corpus of ten English postmodern short stories by Donald Barthelme along with their corresponding translations into Persian was developed. Drawing on the integrative model of analysis developed for this study, the postmodern features in English stories were identified and their corresponding translations were analyzed at different levels. The results of the study revealed that postmodern features were highly translatable since they went through minimum transformation in the process of translation. In fact, translated stories were almost equally postmodern as the original stories and they had preserved the postmodern features to a great extent. This high degree of translatability of postmodern qualities, however, should be taken with a grain of salt. When translators consciously make effort to preserve these features, translatability is a justified interpretation. However, this high degree of translatability could be due to the fact that postmodern features are manifested predominantly at extrasentential level and may thus escape translators’ notice and manipulations. Another interpretation is that to avoid stepping into a writing project, translators have no choice but to preserve the postmodern features in translation.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/713 Explicitation in Adult and Children Literature with regard to Roald Dahl Works 2020-01-30T10:22:15+0330 Hoda Talasaz Talasaz_hoda@yahoo.com Mohammad Rahbar m.Rahbar@Gmail.com <p>Through the history of translation, translators have tried to make communication between nations. Explicitation as a strategy is used to provide a more understanble target text for target audiences. The aim of this study was to understand to what extent a translator considers target audiences in the process of translation and tend to be more explicite in order to make the target texts. So similarities and differences of explicitations for different audiences were studied in the translation of literature. For this purpose, explicitation occurrences were studied in the translation of adult and children’s literature. The data were gathered from Roald Dahl works and their translated versions by Tahmasebi namely: Over to you (1946), Kiss, kiss (1960) and Someone like you (1953) as adult literature, and The witches (1983), Matilda (1988), and Charlie and the chocolate factory (1964) as the children literature. Almost 16000 words were investigated and the candidates of explicitation were extracted through adopting Klaudy's (1998) model. The results of the research revealed that although explicitation in the translation of children literature (1032 items) was more than the translation of adult literature (969 items), the translator's behavior was mostly the same. However, the difference in employing explictation in the translation of adult literature was rooted in differences between the features of children and adult literature, whereas in the translation of children, it was rooted in considering children's knowledge. The outcomes of this study not only could help translators, but also translation educators and translator trainers.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/711 How to translate cultural elements into Arabic-Persian translation in the novel Arzonnefagh based on Newark's theoretical framework 2019-10-29T23:21:51+0330 مائده اکبرکرکاسی maedeh.akbari74@gmail.com سعداله همایونی homayooni84@ut.ac.ir شهریار نیازی shniazi@ut.ac.ir <p>Culture is a human phenomenon and human creature, and it means that all human heritage is transmitted through a generation to another generation. Today, translation has become an important element in social life. Considering that translating is the translation from one language into another language and each language is merged with its culture, we can know the translation is a transfer from a culture to another culture. The culture transfer from a society to another is done by language and translation and the translator is an intermediate between two cultures and, in addition to the awareness of destination language, he should be fully aware of its culture. Since a long time ago translators have encountered the problems of translating of cultural concepts and many theorists have devised ideas and presented the necessary strategies for cultural translation that Peter Newmark is one of these theorists. We try to examine the success of the translator in translating of cultural concepts by using the Newmark model and blended method (quantitative-qualitative). The translator has used the process combined method and cultural equivalents more than other translation processes. However, the translator has been able to provide an acceptable translation of this novel but in some cases, he has limited the transliteration process that has caused to text translation get away from destination culture.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/706 Translation as Renarration: The Case of the Persian Translation of The Cambridge History of Islam 2020-02-11T08:18:33+0330 Kaveh Bolouri kavehbolouri@yahoo.com Mazdak Bolouri m.bolouri76@gmail.com <p class="western"><span style="font-family: Fujiyama2, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Drawing on narrative theory and the notion of framing through paratextual devices, the present study focused on a Persian translation of The Cambridge History of Islam and examined one of its most heavily annotated sections to see how the events elaborated in the original had been renarrated through the paratexts provided by the translator. The section in question was analyzed to see what controversial events had been narrated. Then the notes and footnotes in the translation were examined to see how the events had been renarrated. The purpose was to see what new patterns of causal emplotment had been constructed. The results seemed to be showing that The Cambridge History of Islam had meant to construct a negative and reductionist narrative of Islam and alsohad tried to background or present negatively the events and characters related to the Shia Islam. However, the translator seemed to have provided the reader with an interpretive context in which the negative narratives of Islam had been undermined and the elements of the Shia Islam had been foregrounded.</span></span></p> 2020-02-08T00:00:00+0330 Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/704 Coherence and Implicature in English Translations of Rumi’s Selected Poems: A Bakerian Pragmatic Approach 2019-10-29T23:22:54+0330 Bita Dabiri bitaaadabiri@yahoo.com Razieh Eslamieh eslami_paranduniv@yahoo.com <p>The present paper identifies, compares and analyzes <em>coherence</em> and <em>implicature</em>, two subsets of Mona Baker’s pragmatic equivalence, in two translations of Rumi’s <em>Masnavi</em> <em>Ma'navi</em>; one rendered by a native speaker of the source language, Jawid Mojaddedi, the other by a native speaker of the target language. Poetry translation loses the poet's <strong>literary style</strong> and <strong>conjunction of the words</strong> if the translations do not have <em>coherences</em>; also, loses the main meaning and the same elements between ST and TT if the translations don't have <em>implicatures.</em> The research intends to find out whether the native translator and the English translator have used the same elements to represent <em>coherence</em> and <em>implicature</em> in the translated works and if there exists any relation between the implementation of <em>c</em><em>oherence</em> and <em>implicature</em> and closeness to Rumi’s original literary style. The findings of this research reveal that Whinfield's translation is closer to Molana's literary style than Mojaddedi's. Moreover, the English translator has used the same elements to represent<em> coherence</em> and <em>implicature</em> more than the native translator.&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/702 Comparative Study of Interactive and Interactional Metadiscourse Markers in Nahj al-Balaghah Sermons and Letters 2020-02-10T13:55:03+0330 Maryam Sadat Tayarani mtayarani@yahoo.com Seyed Ali Asghar Soltani aasultani@yahoo.com Ahmad Pakatchi apakatchi@gmail.com Ali Rabiee ali.rabiee@gmail.com <p class="western"><span style="font-family: Fujiyama2, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">The aim of this paper is to investigate the comparative analysis of interactive and interaction meta-discourse in sermons and letters of Islam based on Highland classification. For this purpose, all sermons and letters of Islam-e-Balagat were studied and selected in the sampling phase, letters and sermons, which had a great deal of topic and audience among other sermons and letters. Then dialog and interactive markers are extracted from the text of these sermons and letters. In order to investigate the significant differences between the types of citations in sermons and selected letters, the K-square test was used. The results showed that in the examined sermons, the 613 frequency, the most-valuable dialog markers, are, while the intra-text references, with only one frequency, have a low-quality dialog marker. Among the interactive markers, in the first class, there are in-line with 296 repetitions and the precautionary expressions are in the last category 26 times. Also, in the studied letters, again, with the frequency of 559, the most valuable dialog indicators are, while the citation is only with a frequency, a low-duplicate dialog marker. Among the interactive markers, the frequency of the 257 is more than the most duplicate markers and at the end of the precautionary terms with a frequency of 35. Test hypotheses showed that there was a significant relationship between type of text and type of indicators, but there was no significant statistical difference in the number of dialog indicators and interactive markers between sermons and examined letters.</span></span></p> 2020-02-08T00:00:00+0330 Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/701 Paratextual Visibility: A Case of Footnotes Used by the Iranian Fiction Translators 2019-07-06T18:05:35+0430 Ameneh Yari a.yari@fgn.ui.ac.ir Zahra Amirian z.amirian@fgn.ui.ac.ir Mohammad Amiryousefi m.amiryousefi@fgn.ui.ac.ir <p>In the past few years, scholars have redirected the research path to a new and promising avenue wherein translator’s visibility is explored from paratexts rather than from the translations, highlighting the pivotal role and the position of translators as key agents in translation process. This article investigated the paratextual visibility of Iranian fiction translators by the examination of their footnotes to unveil the traces of translators’ self-expressions and reveal their rationales for choosing a particular translation technique. The analysis comprises footnotes of 300 English to Persian translated fictions. Data analysis resulted in a categorization of footnotes: transliteration, explanatory + transliteration, explanatory, translational, referential. A small number of footnotes were concerned with translation issue mainly revolving around mere equivalents between languages. Overall, it was found that although footnotes could be counted a precious place for translators to highlight their presence, Iranian fiction translators were less inclined to talk about their translation process and its challenges.</p> 2019-07-06T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/700 A Meta-analytical Critique of Antoine Berman’s Retranslation Hypothesis 2019-07-06T18:05:35+0430 Mir Saeed Mousavi Razavi s.mousavi@atu.ac.ir Sajjad Tahmasbi Boveiri s.tahmasbi.b@gmail.com <p>The present article addresses the validity of Berman’s Retranslation Hypothesis (which posits that literary retranslations are closer to the original than first translations) through a systematic, meta-analytical investigation of the empirical studies conducted to the present day on this topic. To this end, a representative sample of the empirical studies regarding RH over the past three decades was collected. The list contained fourteen studies carried out in different settings and between different language-pairs. The results of the meta-analysis demonstrated that empirical data has failed to confirm RH as roughly 60% of the studies have refuted it while the remaining 40% have lent support to it. Furthermore, the results illustrated that all the studies conducted shared one finding: apart from ‘ageing’ of the translations, there are more important motivations giving rise to retranslation including source and target literary norms, translational norms, ideology, socio-political relations, translators’ attitude and experience, and so forth. The meta-analysis conducted also revealed that Berman has apparently overlooked the influence of two important factors in the formation of retranslations: text type, and the potentials of multiple (re)interpretations of texts. In light of the data, his claim that retranslations occur because first translations are ‘incomplete’ also faces serious challenges.</p> 2019-07-06T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/699 The Effects of the Court’s Patronage on the Selection of Books for Translation in the State Translation Bureau 2019-07-07T01:39:54+0430 Mazdak Bolouri mazdakbolouri@atu.ac.ir Mehdi Mirkiaei mmirkiaee@yahoo.com <p>This study explored the works translated in the State Translation Bureau at the time Nasser al-Din Shah Ghajar ruled in Iran. The aim was to explore the Court’s role in the selection of books for translation. To do so, libraries and online data banks were searched to prepare the list of books translated in the Bureau, and then, within the framework of Lefevere’s Patronage Theory, the Shah’s support for the translation of certain works and his negligence for certain other works were analyzed. The works on the list were categorized into travel writing, newspaper articles, history, literature, politics, geography, science, military texts, economy and others. The Shah’s interests and the need he felt for the translation of certain works as well as attempts made by the chairman of the Bureau to inform the Shah were found to be the most important factors influencing the selection of works for translation. The largest number of translated books belonged to the categories of travel writing, newspaper articles and history. In addition, books of literature, politics, geography, science and military tactics were also translated considerably. However, few books were translated in areas such as economy and agriculture, and no books were selected for translation in those areas for which the Shah felt no need, or which he opposed seriously. The non-selection of works was evaluated as relevant to the Shah’s unwillingness for reform and changes in the status quo.</p> 2019-07-06T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/698 Semantics of the Translation of the Condensed Verses of the Qur'an Based on Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic Relations 2019-10-29T23:23:25+0330 Maryam Heidari Delfari m.h1393d@gmail.com Simin Valvi dr.simin.valavi@gmail.com <p>The Holy Qur'an, the most important prophetic miracle, is the document of the truth of Islam and the charter of life at all times. This literary masterpiece, along with the wise and audacious selection of words, has reached the peak of eloquence and rhetoric and has a great deal of meaning and value. The correct understanding of the Qur'an depends on a better acquaintance with literary and rhetorical forms, which requires translation to get the concept. One of these rhetorical techniques is necessary (deletion); attention should be paid to it. And mentioning the disgrace in the republics and, in most cases, seemingly necessary to achieve a better understanding of the meaning of the verse. Therefore, succinct verses contain words within themselves that their translation is a great help in understanding the verses.<br>This research, by means of semantics, which gives a detailed analytical look to the text of the translation, addresses the explanation of the reflection of the words and examines the succinct verses in the companion axis. The result of this research suggests that, in some cases, the substitution of some of the words in the words of the word (s) is impregnable, but in all the verses it is not possible to talk about the revelation and the accompaniment of the blatant words.</p> 2020-06-24T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/697 Literature of Resistance Concerning Iran-Iraq War in English Translation 2020-01-29T11:34:12+0330 fateme Eshtaaqi f.eshtaghi@yahoo.com <p>Iran-Iraq War, imposed on Iran on September 22, 1980 seems to be the greatest historical phenomena in Iran during the twentieth century. This war is called Defa-ye Moghadas, or Holly Defence in Iran. As a result of this social phenomenon, Literature of Resistance was born. This paper aims to show how this genre, which is full of religious, cultural and ideological references, is translated and what are the implications of such translation strategies in terms of critical discourse analysis and how it affects the target text(metatext). To this end, Newmark’s (1998) classification of culture-specific items, translational relationships model by Delabastita (1993) and the critical discourse analysis developed by Farahzad(2012) were applied to investigate three literary books in this genre. The results obtained from comparing and contrasting this corpus revealed that in most cases the translated texts (metatexts) are domesticated and neutralized and are not representative of the identity of Iranians. It may be inferred as being affected by the ideology of the translator or the effect of prevailing ideology of the target culture.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/694 Social Constructivism in Translator Education: The Stakeholders’ Needs Assessment 2020-02-10T13:55:04+0330 Sajedeh Sadat Hosseini sa.hosseini@atu.ac.ir Gholam-Reza Tajvidi Tajvidi@ppars.com Koen Kerremans koen.kerremans@vub.be <p class="western"><span style="font-family: Fujiyama2, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-size: small;">The present survey-based study aimed at investigating the principles of social constructivist education in undergraduate translator training programs in Iran. To this aim, a needs assessment was conducted to identify market demands and students’ needs for three constructivist principles of </span><span style="font-size: small;"><em>authenticity</em></span><span style="font-size: small;">, </span><span style="font-size: small;"><em>collaboration</em></span><span style="font-size: small;"> and </span><span style="font-size: small;"><em>scaffolding</em></span><span style="font-size: small;">. Translation instructors, as the third group of stakeholders, were further surveyed about their teaching approach in terms of the three categories. To find out whether current translation education in Iran reflects market demands and students’ needs with respect to the mentioned constructivist concepts, the results of the surveys were then compared. Upon data analysis, it became evident that </span><span style="font-size: small;"><em>scaffolding</em></span><span style="font-size: small;">, indicating students as responsible learners and teachers providing adequate support for the formers’ learning, was the most important principle for the first two groups of participants. </span><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Scaffolding </em></span><span style="font-size: small;">was similarly described by translation instructors as the most common principle in their teaching approach. On the other hand, while professional translators and students consider </span><span style="font-size: small;"><em>authenticity </em></span><span style="font-size: small;">as the second most important principle, it was profoundly lacking in the teaching approach university instructors take. Therefore, the results suggest that there is a big gap between the current and the desired situation in Iranian undergraduate translator training programs for the principle of “authenticity”, i.e. working on real translation projects with students taking various roles reflecting the real professional translation practice. The demographic information elicited from the surveys also provided evidence for this lacking connection between academia and professional translation practice in Iran. </span></span></span></p> 2020-02-10T00:00:00+0330 Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/693 Semantic Strategy: A Dominant Method in Translating Iltifat in Three English Translations of the Quran 2019-08-30T11:13:56+0430 Abolfazl Horri horri2004tr@gmail.com <p>This essay is an investigation into the translation of reference switch “Iltifat” and its types, in three English translations of the Quran. The essay shows that semantic translation method is the most frequently used strategy with regard to the translation of different types of Iltifat. The study’s main concern is the challenges with which a translator may confront in translating Iltifat. An Iltifat has different kinds of which a shift in the use of pronouns is the most frequently used in the Quran. In order to present an analytical description of how different types of Iltifat are translated, the theoretical framework of the study or an introduction of translation methods is presented at first. Then, the main theories, especially, the two translation methods by Newmark (1988), namely, communicative and semantic translations, are defined. Third, data collection procedures are presented; the data has been extracted from a thorough examination of four verses in which Iltifat has been used. The verses were selected and analyzed from different suras of the three English Quran translations: Yusuf Ali (1934), Pickthall (1930) and Arberry (1955). Careful analysis of the selected translated verses indicates that all three translators have tried to make use of semantic translation method and its range as the most frequently used method to remain faithful to the original. Translators’ use of this translation method may account, on the one hand, for the importance of the original text, but it could also be an indicator of the translators’ partiality and ideology.</p> 2019-08-30T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/692 A Model for Crowdsourcing Development of Databases for Qur’anic Studies Sources 2019-09-02T10:02:53+0430 Hussein Mollanazar mollanazar@atu.ac.ir Akram Tayyebi akram.tayyebi@atu.ac.ir <p>Technology has become an integral part of the translation task. Nevertheless, few translation memories and term bases are available for translating Qur’anic Studies sources. Without them, attaining maximum efficiency in this field is not possible because such tools facilitate decision-making in the translation process from/into Persian. There is an imperative need for developing such databases. Creating parallel corpora and aligning them to come up with translation memories and term banks can help improve the quantity and quality of translations of Qur’anic Studies sources from/into Persian. However, this task cannot be carried out by a single person. Using crowdsourcing in developing TMs and TBs for Qur’anic Studies sources is an alternative that can expedite the task. Nonetheless, crowdsourcing in developing such databases is a relatively unattended research area. Examining existing models revealed that no pre-existing Translation Studies model suited the needs of this study. With the motive of filling this gap, the researchers opted for developing and validating a model for human resource management in Translation Studies through adopting a crowdsourcing model (the Metropolis Model) and adapting it for their specific conditions (developingthe Jāmiʿ model). Findings of this research indicate that the Jāmiʿ Model is adequate for developing TMs and TBs.</p> 2019-08-30T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/688 The Contribution of Translation to the Formation of Themes of 'city' and 'women' in the Social Novel in ‘Poetics Proper’ of the Late Qajar Era (1895–1925) 2020-02-10T13:55:02+0330 Maryam Saidi msaidi81@gmail.com Salar Manafi Anari amanafi55@yahoo.com <p>Social novel emerged in ‘poetics proper’ of the late Qajar era and was established in Persian literary system during Pahlavi. In this genre, ‘city’ and ‘women’ constitute the dominant themes. Applying the ‘Model for the Analysis of Translation Poetics’, the present study attempted to investigate the contribution of translation to the emergence of the social novel in ‘poetics proper’ of the late Qajar era (1313-1344AH/1275-1304SH). Firstly, based on the most important literary histories and bibliographical lists of translations of this period, main tenets of ‘poetics proper’ were identified and it was found that social novel can be categorized under ‘fictional literature patronized by the press system and publishing houses/publishers to be produced with the critique-reform function’. Then, 333 translations were investigated and it was illustrated that translation of travelogue and police-detective novels contributed the theme of ‘city’ to this genre, translation of Rousseau’s works drew writers’ attention to the theme of ‘city’ in contrast to the ‘country’, and translation of women biographies/stories, women’ educational-legal literature and women’s translation practices in women’s press played an important role in writing about ‘women’s’ problems. Moreover, the present study showed that the way these themes were dealt with in social novels of the late Qajar era, compared to the way they were considered during pre-Constitution, found a new emphasis that the view toward ‘city’ and ‘women’ was no longer ‘ideal-romantic’, but more realistic along with elements of ‘negative/dark romanticism’. Hence, during the late Qajar toward Phalavi I, urbanization and modernization brought corruption and prostitution.</p> 2020-02-08T00:00:00+0330 Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/682 Exploring Hybridity in a Sample of English Feature Films Dubbed into Persian by IRIB 2019-10-07T20:30:00+0330 Hussein Mollanazar mollanazar@atu.ac.ir Arghavan Omranipour arghavan_omranipour@atu.ac.ir <p>The present paper explores the complex phenomenon of hybridity in the multisemiotic system of dubbing. Mollanazar and Parham’s (2009) model was used and adapted according to Delabastita’s (1989) distinction of film signs in order to identify manifestations of hybridity in all audio-verbal, audio-nonverbal, visual-verbal, and visual-nonverbal layers of dubbing. First, manifestations of hybridity characterized as unusual and strange for the target culture were identified and extracted from the Persian films dubbed by IRIB. In the next step, the type of such manifestations was determined by comparing and contrasting them with their corresponding original versions according to the first approach of Mollanazar and Parham’s (2009) model. The results revealed that Names and Dates occupied the first place not only in the total frequency of the manifestations of hybridity in the four layers, but also in the frequency of such elements in both audio-verbal and visual-verbal layers, separately. The audio-verbal and visual-nonverbal layers were the first and second layers which showed the most frequent manifestations among four layers, respectively. As far as the type of such elements is concerned, concrete Cultureme manifestations (CCMs) were the most frequent type.</p> 2019-08-30T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/680 Strategies Used in Rendering Humor in Translations of “A Man Called Ove" by Fredrick Backman 2019-11-27T12:03:52+0330 fatemeh ghanbar beheshti fgh.beheshti@gmail.com Amir mahdavi zafarghandi mahdavi1339@gmail.com <h1>Abstract</h1> <p>In the current study, two translations by Farnaz Taimorzuv (2017) and Hossein Tehrani (2016) of the book “A Man Called Ove” by Fredrick Backman, which is abundant in humor, were selected. The transition&nbsp;of humor from the source language to the target language was investigated by the syntactic strategy of Chesterman (2016). During the analysis of humor, the humorous excerpts were identified. Afterwards, the transference of humorous effects was investigated in both Persian translations. The results showed that, in translation of humor at the linguistic level, the translators have not been fully successful. Neither have they effectively rendered malapropism.&nbsp; Finally, in translation of repetition and parallelism, Taimorzuv applies some strategies to transfer the humoristic effect to the target text, whereas Tehrani seems to have ignored the aesthetic values of the source text.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/677 Translation Shifts and Narratology: A Case Study of ‘Journey to Heading 270 Degrees’ 2019-12-01T17:10:19+0330 Helia Vaezian vaezian.helia@gmail.com Fatemeh Ghaderi Bafti samira.gh90@yahoo.com <p>Bringing the concepts of narratology and optional shifts together, the present research elaborated on Iran-Iraq War’s translated narration through a case study of a novel on this war. We analyzed the English translation of the Persian novel, <em>Journey to Heading 270 Degrees</em>, to examine how Iran-Iraq War narratives were translated and if and how the different narration of the translator affected the narratological aspect of the source narrative. To this end, Pekkanen (2010)’s model was applied to explore into the formal dissimilarities between the source text and the target text at the micro-textual level through a linguistic comparative analysis aimed at identifying optional shifts. Optional shifts were then categorized and the most frequent optional shifts, which made a pattern in the translated text, were identified. As the final step, the narratological aspect(s) were studied in the light of the optional shifts. Our analysis revealed that the optional shift of expansion-additions which were the most frequent shift type with 203 instances, contraction-deletions with 112 instances, and optional shifts of miscellaneous cases with 36 instances affected the degree of the specification as a narratological aspect in this study.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/675 Exploring the Effectiveness of Using Translation in Teaching Grammar to English as a Foreign Language Learners 2019-12-05T09:45:38+0330 Hossein Navidinia navidinia@birjand.ac.ir Marzieh Khoshhal mkhoshhal70@yahoo.com Mohsen Mobaraki mmobaraki@birjand.ac.ir <p>There have been many controversies in the history of language education regarding the effectiveness of using students’ mother tongue in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of using translation in teaching grammar to English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students. To do so, 30 EFL students were randomly selected and assigned to two groups, namely control and experimental. To examine the effectiveness of using translation in teaching grammar, the two groups were taught for 18 sessions by the use of two different methods. In the experimental group, students’ L1 was ‘judiciously’ used while teaching the grammatical rules, while in the control group, English language was used as the sole means of instruction. After 18 sessions of instruction, the performance of the two groups in the pre-test and posttest were compared using T-test and Mann-Whitney U test. The findings indicated that the experimental group outperformed the control one, which confirmed the positive effect of using translation on teaching grammar to EFL learners. The results were discussed and the pedagogical implications were made.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/674 Introducing a Model for Analyzing the Position of Translation Service Quality in Iran from the Customer Perspective 2019-05-26T23:20:41+0430 Salar Manafi Anari salarmanafianari@gmail.com Elaheh Kianian e.kianian@gmail.com <p>The main purpose of this study was to propose a model analyzing the position of translation service quality in Iran from the customers’ perspective based on SERVQUAL model in translation agencies in Mashhad and Tehran. For this purpose, AMOS software was applied to model the structural equations. The research was conducted with a sample size of 60 experts (20 academic experts and 40 customers of translation services). The proposed model was also developed based on various clusters. The results showed that the factor correlation between “cluster of translation agency quality in non-literary translation projects in language pair English-Persian” and “cluster of translator quality” was reported 0.936 based on the structural loadings of confirmatory factor analysis. Moreover, the factor correlation between “cluster of translation agency quality in non-literary translation projects in language pair English-Persian” and “cluster of service quality for customers” was reported 0.521 based on the structural loadings of confirmatory factor analysis. Finally, the factor correlation between “quality analysis of translation services” and “cluster of service quality for customers” was reported 0.566 based on the structural loadings of confirmatory factor analysis. Overall, the results showed the good fitting of the proposed model and thus validated the model as a tool for evaluating translation service quality in the field.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/673 Policy, Planning, and Translation in the Islamic Republic of Iran 2019-05-23T13:05:59+0430 Gholam-Reza Tajvidi tjre301@gmail.com Ehsan Alipour ehsaan.alipour@gmail.com <p>The dissolution of the Soviet Union signaled the end of crackdown on Islam in the newly independent Republic of Azerbaijan. This created a space for major Muslim countries, especially Iran, to attempt to revive Islam in the secularized society through the supply of translated religious literature, among other means. Assuming this to be an act of culture planning, the present paper aims to study the Iranian culture planning through translation in post‑Soviet Azerbaijan. Using a bibliography of religious literature translated into Azerbaijani and published in Iran, an attempt is made to explore this case by analyzing the agents involved (translators and publishers), the titles translated and their intended functions, and the policies that guided this culture planning endeavor. We argue that the post-revolutionary Iranian (foreign) cultural policy of ‘Islamization’ was the guiding force behind the activity, which was primarily carried out by mostly (semi‑)private publishers and anonymous translators.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/672 Methods Employed in Rendering Metonymy in the Ancient Translations of the Holy Qur'an: The Case of Tabari, Meybodi and Abul-Futouh Razi 2019-06-08T16:57:14+0430 Zahra Mohammadi zahra_mohammady48@yahoo.com Simin Valavi dr.simin.valavi@gmail.com <p>Familiarity with the techniques of rhetoric and the recognition of metonymy and its different kinds is one of the important issues in the translation of the Holy Qur'an. Therefore, in this paper, first, the method of examining the translation of the Qur'an and metonymy and its kinds is discussed, and then based on the deductive-inductive method, by mentioning evidence from the individual authorized metonymy of the ten second parts (joz') of the Holy Qur'an, the methods of their rendering in the three ancient Quranic translations (Tabari, Meybodi and Abul-Futouh Razi) have been investigated. According to the findings of the study and its analysis, the results indicate: the mentioned translators have not followed the same methods in rendering authorized metonymy. They have used various methods of translation, such as literal, content-wise, and interpretive translation in conveying the meaning of metonymy to the audience. Tabari and Abul-Futouh Razi have followed mostly literal translation. But Meybodi has had the most content-wise translation in rendering metonymy.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/671 Nezami Ganjavi's Word-selection Art in Translating Scientific 2019-05-23T13:05:57+0430 Giti Faraji donyaf1388@yahoo.com Ali Mohammad Poshtdar am.poshtdar@gmail.com <p>In the field of Islamic-Iranian civilization, the educated made more effort for transferring culture and knowledge; especially from the 3<sup>rd</sup>to 6<sup>th</sup>century AH linguistic sciences and translation of scientific works boomed. Nezami in translating into Persian language has a privileged position. Using scientific approaches to word building, he has provided great services to the Persian language.</p> <p>Using content analysis method, the author reviewed Nezami's <em>Khamsah</em> to answer this fundamental question: what methods has Nezami utilized in translating <em>hapax legomena</em> and Arabic-Persian compounds, and how successful was he in this way? After the review, one can point out three methods of Nezami in the process of translation: equivalents with the combination of common words in Persian language, translation with the combination of Arabic and Persian word, and word-by-word translation. Sometimes he has not translated the word or compound at all; and this is true more of canonical and legal terms. Nezami's good way in translating is the building of new words in translation, which he himself claimed to have.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/669 An Examination of Home Culture Attachment among Iranian Translation Students and Its Relation to Their Self-Efficacy and Translation Achievement 2019-11-27T12:06:41+0330 زهرا مقدسی z.m.110110@gmail.com Behzad Ghonsooly ghonsooly@um.ac.ir Afsaneh Ghanizadeh ghanizadeafsane@yahoo.com <p>The recent debates on Translation Studies as an interdisciplinary field of study have inaugurated the extension of new perspectives on its line of research. In this regard, the focus of attention has been devoted not only on the product but also the process of translating whose main contributors are translators. In line with this contention, this study aimed to survey the level of home culture attachment among the second- third- fourth- year of B.A translation student, and its relation to their translation quality achievement. As to the impact of self-efficacy on human behavior and practice which has been acknowledged up to now, this study also aimed to investigate the relationship between students’ home culture attachment and their self-efficacy. To this end, two previously constructed and validated Home Culture Attachment and translation self-efficacy questionnaires were administered to a sample of 103 translation students, who were studying translation in Imam Reza International University in Mashhad, a city in the northeast of Iran. Finally, the statistical results were discussed and implications were provided.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/668 A Narrative-Argumentation Framework for Translation Quality Assessment 2019-10-07T20:24:37+0330 Mohammad Ali Kharmandar m_a_kharmandar@hotmail.com Amin Karimnia aminkarimnia@yahoo.com <p>Although argumentation theory can contribute to translation studies and especially translation quality assessment (TQA), argumentation models need to be further expanded to specifically serve the process of translation. How an argument is embedded within a larger body of text (e.g. a book chapter), and how the argument-related structural pieces are put together through textual progression represent some of the challenging questions that assessors/practitioners of translation need to deal with. This study proposes a holistic, multi-genre TQA framework that relies on narrative theory and argumentation theory. Pragma-dialectics (including argument scheme and structure) shapes the argumentative parcel, while the notion of narrative coherence, with reference to Ricoeur’s configuration, builds the narrative component. The framework is tested on an English translation of a Rumi’s chapter in his major book <em>Fihi Ma Fihi </em>(<em>Discourses of Rumi</em>). The findings show that the framework, as a multifaceted TQA instrument, can functionally process arguments in narratives.</p> 2019-08-30T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/665 Translation, Modernization and Enlightenment: The Qajar Translation Movement 2019-10-07T20:25:52+0330 Farzaneh Farahzad farzaneh.farahzad@gmail.com Somayeh Adili somayeh_fairy@yahoo.com <p>This paper investigates the role of translation in the socio-political changes in Iran under the Qajars ruling over the country from 1789 to 1925. It primarily covers the 1807–1906 time period—from the initiation of the translation movement around 1807 in the reign of Fath Ali Shah to the proclamation of the Iranian Constitution in 1906 in the reign of Mozaffar al-Din Shah. The paper, as a microhistorical research, argues that translation contributed to the launch of modernization projects through introducing Western sciences and technologies as well as expanding modern education. At the same time, it played a major role in raising Iranians’ awareness, inspiring political campaigns and promoting ethical values, which ultimately paved the way for the Iranian Constitutional Revolution in 1906.</p> 2019-08-30T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/662 A Critical Discourse Analysis of Political Implications in Three Persian Translations of “Animal Farm” 2019-11-27T12:13:16+0330 Amin Karimnia aminkarimnia@yahoo.com <ol> <li class="show">This study draws on a comparative framework to evaluate the translation of political implications in three Persian translations of the novella <em>Animal Farm </em>(by George Orwell), using&nbsp; Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis (CDA) model. The study regards political implications and ideologies as a mode of background knowledge shared by writers and audiences in the source language. Fairclough’s model involves three qualitative stages (interpretation, explanation, reproduction) and takes into account ideological stances. Political allusions in novels, if not sufficiently translated, could downgrade the implicit purposes and even the meaningfulness of the text. Given this significant function, the study specifically focuses on linguistic items that play an extra-textual role in meaning formation and the way they are translated into Persian. Hidden ideologies may appear in the form of assumptions, presuppositions, interactional history, or cultural references. This study emphasizes that translators must not take at face value what Fairclough calls “members resources” and must examine their choices against other sources.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</li> </ol> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/661 Translation and Cultural Globalization 2019-10-19T11:07:38+0330 Hoda Zamani Sarzendeh hodasarzendeh@gmail.com <p>The present study aims at exploring if and how translation can affect cultural diversity at the age of globalization. A brief investigation of the interaction between globalization and local cultures allows meeting one of the less discussed functions of translation in this regard, studied under the concept of ‘deterritorialization’. In a try to locate the vague concept in translation theory and practice, a case study is conducted on a Facebook campaign working on a cultural issue. The critical discourse analysis of the translated texts published in this page helps to realize the abstract concept of deterritorialization, and indicates the real efficacy of translation in its implementation in the sense of the global spread of culture-specific elements. Based on the new perspective, a modified definition is represented that situates deterritorialization as a new concept in Translation Studies serving the issues and challenges of the field.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/660 Comparing Two Translations of the Holy Qur’an: A Case Study on Sura Tariq 2019-06-12T19:46:58+0430 farzaneh khodabandeh f.khodabandeh@pnu.ac.ir <p>The purpose of this article was three-fold. First, it compared two translations of the Sura Tariq from the Holy Qur’an (i.e. the 2001 translation of Abdullah Yusuf Ali, and the 2001 translation of Tahereh Saffarzadeh) based on Newmark's (1988) translation procedures. Then it investigated which translation was more accurate and also determined the differences between the two translations in terms of style. The comparisons show that although there were some similarities between the two translations, Yusuf Ali’s translation was a semantic translation and Saffarzadeh’s was an adaptation one. The results also show that unlike Yusuf Ali’s translation, Saffarzadeh’s translation was more faithful to the Qur’an structure and she used ordinary and contemporary English in her translation.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/653 A case study research of the translation of Iranian legal concepts Relying on the jurilinguistics of Geneva 2019-10-18T21:31:13+0330 فرناز ساسانی sassani@atu.ac.ir هدیه نصیری hediyehnassiri@gmail.com <p>&nbsp;اهداف مورد نظر این پژوهش معرفی افقی جدید به نام مطالعۀ ترجمه با رویکرد زبانشناسی حقوقی در جامعۀ حقوقی آکادمیک ایران و لزوم توجه به مبانی و تئوری­های ترجمه توأم با آشنایی مترجمان حقوقی با مفاهیم و تأسیسات حقوقی از طریق مطالعات تطبیقی حقوق و نیز مطالعه موردی برخی از مفاهیم حقوقی برای تبیین نظریه زبانشناسی حقوقی است. در پژوهش حاضر از روش توصیفی و نمونه پژوهی استفاده شده است. در ابتدا به مطالعۀ &nbsp;نظریه زبانشناسی حقوقی ژنو خواهیم پرداخت .از آنجاییکه نظام حقوقی ایران برپایه شریعت اسلامی است و در عین حال بهره مند از نظام حقوق رومی ژرمنی است، ترجمۀ مفاهیم حقوقی ایران به زبان فرانسه نیازمند آشنایی با نظریه زبانشناسی حقوقی ژنو است. پیکره اصلی مقاله که مفاهیمی از آن بعنوان نمونه مورد مطالعه قرار می گیرد کتاب هفتم از جلد دوم قانون مدنی ایران است که قانونگذار در آن دو تأسیس نکاح و طلاق را مورد تقنین قرار داده است. مفاهیمی چند از این بخش از قانون را با مراجعه به <em>ترمینولوژی حقوق</em> تألیف دکتر محمد جعفر جعفری لنگرودی بعنوان منبع موثق واژه شناسی حقوقی ایران و نیز با رجوع به سایر منابع معتبر حقوقی مورد مطالعه قرار خواهیم داد.&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/652 A Marxist Critique of Postcolonial Translation Studies 2019-07-06T18:09:42+0430 Hussein Mollanazar mollanazar@atu.ac.ir Saeed Fuladi fuladi.saeed@gmail.com <p>Postcolonial Translation Studies has been among the prominent trends in the field during the past three decades. This wide-ranging interest in postcolonial investigations of translation has been so significant that Petterson (1999) identifies “the postcolonial turn” in Translation Studies. Postcolonial approaches in Translation Studies have a twofold purpose: firstly, to investigate the effects of power imbalances in transcultural communications on translation process and product, and, secondly, to find ways in which “translation might contribute to exposing, challenging and decolonizing the legacy of colonialism and various forms of neo-colonialism in a postcolonial era” (Hui, 2013, p. 200). Another field which is engaged with the problem of power imbalances among different societies is Marxism. Marxism and postcolonial studies have both claimed to be anticolonial movements, but Marxists have been critical of postcolonial studies approach to colonialism. The present study tried to use critical perspectives provided by Marxism to see whether postcolonial Translation Studies have been contributive to the campaign against (neo)colonial exploitation of the colonized people or not. The results show that postcolonial Translation Studies has ignored the importance of Capitalism in analyzing translation in colonial and postcolonial situation. Furthermore, it is shown that the resistance strategies adapted in postcolonial translation have little significant result in the Real world.</p> 2019-07-05T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/651 An Analysis of Humor in an American Animation and Comparing its Strategies and Impact of Reception Environment Applied in its Persian Dubbings 2019-10-18T21:31:55+0330 farzaneh khodabandeh f.khodabandeh@pnu.ac.ir <p>The purpose of this article was three-fold. First, five translators identified humorous expressions from fourteen episodes of an animated comedy entitled "<em>The Boss Baby</em>". Then, the selected expressions were compared to their dubbings conducted by Nahal and Gem Junior channels and the translation strategies were analyzed based on the translation of humor suggested by Chiaro (2010), then the impact of the reception environment&nbsp; and the reasons for using each strategy were investigated based on Chaume's (2012) model. The frequency and percentage of strategies applied were calculated and the findings revealed that while literal translation was the most frequently used strategy in Gem Junior channel, substitution and omission were the dominant strategies used in the other one. Nahal channel naturally rendered the dialogues according to the Iranian children’s culture; therefore, it’s translation was target-oriented. On the other hand, Gem Junior channel's translation opted for a method which was between both domestication and foreignization. Finally, the results showed that the translation of both channels met the quality standards of dubbing.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/649 Representation of Religious Identity in the Persian Translations of the Power and the Glory in the Pre- and Post-Islamic Revolution of Iran 2019-05-23T13:05:59+0430 Salar Manafi Anari salarmanafianari@gmail.com Sirvan Aminzadeh sirvanaminzadeh@gmail.com <p>The narrative theory has entered the domain of Translation Studies via Baker`s well-known book <em>Narrative and Conflict</em> (2006). Baker introduced the the model of narrative analysis for investigating identity constitution as a part of social reality construction in narratives and their translations across languages and cultures. Likewise, the present study investigated the representation of religious identity in the Persian translations of <em>the Power and the Glory</em> (Greene, 1946) in the pre- and post-Islamic Revolution eras in Iran. In so doing, Baker`s model (2006) was applied, by which the translations and the original text were analyzed at both micro-and macro-levels. The results of the study revealed that the protagonist`s religious identity was represented in accordance with the Christian and Western values and terms in the pre-Islamic Revolution Persian translation. However, his identity was misrepresented in the post-Islamic Revolution Persian translation as it was done in consensus with the Islamic values and terms. Finally, it was concluded that the TT1 served the dissemination of the foreign social reality in the Iranian society, while the TT2 intentionally manipulated the original social reality to diffuse the system`s preferred reality in the Islamic society of Iran.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/648 An Analysis of Humor in an American Animation and Comparing its Strategies and Impact of Reception Environment Applied in its Persian Dubbings 2019-10-24T11:34:07+0330 farzaneh khodabandeh f.khodabandeh@pnu.ac.ir <p>The purpose of this article was fourfold. First, five translators identified humorous expressions from fourteen episodes of an animated comedy entitled "<em>The Boss Baby</em>" based on the model proposed by Dynel (2009). Then, the selected expressions were compared to their dubbings conducted by Nahal and Gem Junior channels and the translation strategies were analyzed based on the translation of humor suggested by Chiaro (2010), then the impact of the reception environment and the reasons for using each strategy were investigated based on Chaume's (2012) model. The frequency and percentage of strategies applied were calculated and the findings revealed that while literal translation was the most frequently used strategy in Gem Junior channel, substitution and omission were the dominant strategies used in the other one. Nahal channel naturally rendered the dialogues according to the Iranian children’s culture; therefore, it’s translation was target-oriented. On the other hand, Gem Junior channel's translation opted for a method which was between both domestication and foreignization. Finally, the results showed that the translation of both channels met the quality standards of dubbing. Regarding the credibility of the dialogues, the dubbed scripts of Gem Junior channel were more adequate in relation to the source than Nahal channel.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/647 Probing into Iranian Translation Students'Unwillingness to Translate and Thinking Personality Type 2019-10-18T22:13:45+0330 Effat Dashti effat_dashti@yahoo.com Behzad Ghonsooly Hezare Ghonsooly@yahoo.com <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The current study was an attempt to find out whether <em>Thinking</em> personality type predicted Iranian translation students’ unwillingness to translate. To this end, out of 95 participants, 50 participants from Emam Reza and&nbsp; Tabaran universities, studying English Translation in Mashhad, Iran, were selected based on convenience-random sampling. To gather the data two research instruments were utilized. The first one was Unwillingness to Translate (UWTT) questionnaire. It includes 33 Likert-tem scale. The second one was a 15-item Briggs-Myers (1944) questionnaire. It consists of dichotomy measure as Extrovert/ Introvert, Sensing/ Intuitive, Thinking/ Feeling, Judging/ Perceiving. Regression was run to analyze the data. The findings indicated that <em>Thinking</em> personality type is the most effective personality type which can influence and predict UWTT. Based on Jung, <em>Thinking</em> is the process we use for evaluating information by applying objective and logical criteria.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/644 نقد و بررسی ترجمه بصیر الملک (مطالعه موردی ترجمه ترکیب های وصفی- اضافی در قرآن کریم) 2019-10-18T21:32:42+0330 ابراهیم فلاح fallahabrahim@gmail.com <p>One of the translations of the Qur'an that enjoyed fame and gravity during the Qajar period, and was welcomed for many years, was translated by Mirza Tahir Basir al-Molk from the religious relics of the Nasir al-Din Shah court. This rationale, while having advantages and privileges, is not crammed with defects and landslides, as well as other translations, can be criticized.This research, using descriptive-analytical method and collecting information in phishing and translating more accurately, seeks to investigate the technical and literary pathology of Basir Al-Molk's translation by presenting its proposed evidence and translation in the discussion of additional compositional descriptions. Review it. The results of this research show that the translation of Basir al-Mulk has a mistake and error in the field of additional compound combinations, including: a brief description of the description of the layout of the additions. Which has been criticized by evidence of verses.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/643 The Role of Translation in Debut of Theatre on Iranian Stage and Evolution of Contemporary Persian Drama 2019-07-06T18:05:35+0430 Mostafa Ahmadi mostafaahmadi.ts@gmail.com <p>Evolution of contemporary Persian drama was not without a historical background. The Iranians were acquainted with<em> dramatic conversations</em> and <em>performances</em>, the indispensable elements of theatre. From among the Inranian traditional performances it was <em>Ta’zieh</em> which could deviate from its ritual path. Developed from a simple public mourning into a full-fledged national drama, <em>Ta’zieh</em>’s theatrical aspects increased; though in Qajar period the way was paved for <em>Tazieh</em> to evolve into a national theatre, it was not promoted to that position. Social and political changes under the Constitutional Revolution shaped a new order in the Iraninan society. With reshaping of the Iranian socio-cultural polysystem the young domestic model of drama (<em>Ta’zieh</em>) was shuned by influential social classes, pushed to periphery and a foreign model (<em>Theatre</em>) was adopted. In this process translation assumed a central position. Applying polysystem theory, this study is an attempt to investigate the role and position of translation in the process of the evolution of contemporary Persian drama. To this aim, after surveying the Iranian’s familiarity with dramatic conversations and the art of performance and their paths to developing into dramatic literature, the influential people, texts, events and trends which in specific historical moments paved the way for the evolution of contemporary Persian drama were accounted.</p> 2019-07-05T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/638 A Comparative Study of Qur'an English Translation by Tahereh Saffarzadeh and Abdullah Yusuf Ali Focusing on Sura “Tariq” 2019-10-18T21:59:56+0330 محبوبه ابوطالبی Aboutalebi.Mahboubeh@ymail.com <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The purpose of the present research was to compare two translations of the Sura Tariq from the holy Quran (i.e. the 2001 translation of Abdullah Yusuf Ali, and the 2001 translation of Tahereh Saffarzadeh). The two translations were compared based on Newmark's (1988) translation procedures and his view about the different translation kinds and also in the level of language style. In the level of style, two translations are completely different. Ali uses poetic old English whereas Saffarzadeh uses contemporary English for translating. The comparisons show that although there are some similarities between the two translations, Yusuf Ali’s translation is a semantic translation and Saffarzadeh’s is an adaptation one. The results also show that Saffarzadeh’s translation is more faithful to the Quran structure. There are some grammatical mistakes in Yusuf Ali’s translation which are not found in Saffarzadeh’s translation, too.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/637 Errors in Machine Translated and Crowdsourced Post-Edited Texts 2019-07-19T13:01:07+0430 Farzaneh Farahzad farahzadatu@yahoo.com Seyedsina Mirarabshahi s.arabshahi1989@gmail.com <p>The initial objective of the present study was to identify the most and the least frequent error types in Google Translate (GT) raw outputs and the crowd(sourced) post-edited versions according to Vilar et al.’s (2006) typology. The second objective was to compare the results of error analysis between both outputs in order to address the significance of the decrease in the number of errors in post-edited texts. To this end, four English sports news texts were uploaded on Google Translator Toolkit (GTT), which is an online collaborative environment for post-editing the automatic translations rendered by GT. Subsequently, eleven M.A. students of translation studies which were categorized as unprofessional translators were invited to the online environment via email to modify the machine translations. Results of the error analysis revealed that the two categories of Incorrect Words and Unknown Words were respectively the most and the least frequent error types in both outputs. The study also showed less than fifty percent decrease in the number of errors in post-edited texts. However, some effective factors for improving the quality of crowd(sourced) post-edited outputs and the applicability of GTT were investigated based on the collected literature, an online interview with participants and the researchers’ own observations.</p> 2019-07-05T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/636 Text-Image Interactions in Translated Comics 2019-01-03T08:59:16+0330 Fatemeh Parham parham@atu.ac.ir Zahra Hossein Tabrizi ht.afsoon@gmail.com <p>In children’s books meaning is communicated through the interaction of both the visual and the verbal elements. The present study thus attempts to examine whether text-image interactions in children’s books undergo any change in the process of translation. To this end, a corpus of 24 English comics along with their Persian translations was developed. Then relying on McCloud’s (1994) typology of text-image interactions, the selected English text-image pairs were compared with their corresponding pairs in Persian in search of any change. The results of the study revealed that changes in texts or in images gave rise to changes in text-image interactions in almost half of the cases examined (46%). This means that since different elements in children books are connected and it is through their cooperation that meaning is conveyed, any change in one element may effect a greater change at a different level and may affect the communication of the message.</p> 2019-01-03T00:00:00+0330 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/635 Spatial Territories in Translation Studies 2019-01-03T08:59:16+0330 Farzaneh Farahzad farahzadatu@yahoo.com Samar Ehteshami ehteshami.samar@gmail.com <p>Space-driven concepts have always been present in Translation Studies. Translation has been historically viewed as a movement between source and target language/text and the field is replete of space-bound metaphors such as “translation as transfer” and “the landscape of translation”. Space in the current study was taken in its Lefebvrian sense, defined as a social construct and identified, among others, as being relational, multiple and dynamic. Therefore, not all views that draw on space would be considered as a spatial theory on translation and those theories that employ static space were excluded from this study. Upon critical analysis of theories on translation, four space-driven strands of conceptualization have been identified, namely, translation space, translation and urban space, translation and geography and translation and ecology; all based on interdisciplinary dialogue. Each of these strands introduced a new arena for studying translation though incorporating a similar episteme. Through mapping spatial theories of Translation Studies, the current positioning and future tendencies of the field would become more vivid.</p> 2019-01-03T00:00:00+0330 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/634 Paratranslation and Image Schemas in the Quranic Translation: Mental Spaces 2019-01-03T08:59:16+0330 Abolfazl Mosaffa Jahromi a.mosaffa.jahromi@gmail.com <p>Although translation itself is a cognitive process, translation from cognitive view is new. There exist many aspects in the translations of the Holy Quran which have been added to the original text. These aspects are diverse, different and can be classified on the wide spectrum. It is very difficult to justify them based on equivalence or many theories of translation. But, mental spaces and their internal structure, namely image schemas, can give us an effective tool how and why these elements appear in the text. It is even possible to predict which elements may be added to the text if we consider frames related to the verse. According to mental spaces theory and their internal structures these elements are viewed as prompts for activating a frame or frames relevant to the interpretation of the original text, historical origin or so. The translators each have activated one or more aspects of the frame for conceptualization. Comparing the translations reveal that these elements activate the same mental spaces.</p> 2019-01-03T00:00:00+0330 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/633 A Curious Case of Taboo Rendition in Persian AVT 2019-01-03T08:59:16+0330 Behnam Rezvani Sichani b.rezvani@fgn.ui.ac.ir Mahmoud Afrouz m.afrouz@fgn.ui.ac.ir <p>The pace of technological evolution, with particular reference to mass media outlets like films, has become so fast in recent years. Such rapid progress made audiovisual translation (AVT) a hot topic. This study aims to investigate the impact of local cultural norms and translators’ hiring institutions policies on Persian audiovisual translators’ decisions in case of taboo translation. In this paper, three translations of the film named <em>I, Daniel Blake </em>were analyzed. The translation corpus included an Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) dubbed version, a subtitle used by an authorized private video on demand (VOD) company and finally a fansubbed version. The theoretical framework of the current study was based on Sharifi and Darchinian’s (2009) classification of taboo interpretation in contemporary Iran and Khoshsaligheh and Ameri’s (2014) model for taboo translation. The results depicted that taboo translation in Persian AVT represent an ideological spectrum going from one extreme to its opposite. This complete range of decisions in Persian AVT truly reflects a famous dichotomy in translation i.e. <em>Domestication</em> and <em>Foreignization</em>.</p> 2019-01-03T00:00:00+0330 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/630 A Study on Translation Quality of Upstream International Documents from Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) Point of View: The Case of Iranian Nuclear Agreement 2019-10-18T21:59:43+0330 Seyed Reza Beh-Afarin parpinchy@gmail.com <p>Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action possesses critical importance in Iran national and international political relations. This thesis aimed to study the translation quality of Iranian Nuclear Agreement (JCPOA), as an upstream international document from critical discourse analysis (CDA) point of view. The study sample consisted of 40 participants who were randomly selected from English literature and Translation students, of Islamic Azad University (IAU). The main data gathering method was a handmade CDA questionnaire. The mean of the studied participants’ age was 28 years and the median was 27 years. To test the reliability of the questionnaire and its questions, the Chochran’s Chi square test was used. Significance level of Chochran’s Chi square was less than 5% (p=0.000), and the coefficient was quite high (195.519), then it was evident that reliability of the questionnaire and its questions was approved. Findings indicated that the overall quality of four selected translations of JCPOA text were reasonably good. However, results also revealed that there were significant differences between the quality and strategies of the four different selected translations, as well. Findings also showed that there was no significant correlation between views of senior and junior English translation students about the quality of translation of JCPOA translated by MOF and other translators. Overall, among 7 selected complicated sentences, 5 sentences were translated in the best accurate manner in (T3) as the official translation, and two remaining best translations were provided by (T4).</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/631 Comparison in Two Languages English and Farsi 2019-10-18T21:59:30+0330 الهام رضائیان ورمزیار mohsen_kh_6914@yahoo.com <p>One of the important parts of the Persian literature is poetry which rhythmic part of the literature. In the poetry, words have an important and unique meaning. The main issue is that could we translate the poetry in English and Persian? Some researcher believes that all of the lyrics can’t be translated. And other believes that lyrics can be translated. But the thought in the translation, the meaning of the poetry different from the source because we can make lyrics.</p> <p>The aim of the present study was investigated about the important problem in poetry translation. Our methodology is comparative and our research method was descriptive. According to the writers, concluded that it doesn’t matter the source belongs to the native translator or not.</p> <p>But the important issue is that the translator must be aware of all of the features of the source and native language, so he can translate the text more closely to the implicit meaning.</p> <p>In addition, the results show that there is no absolute method for the translator. So, the translator has not been successful in translating the text. Because the clarification of the implicit meaning could not be transferred the main meaning. But at the same time transferring meaning changes the meaning of the text which is not suitable.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/629 An Efficient Method to Add Chunker Rules in Persian to English Rule-based Apertium Machine Translation System 2019-07-06T18:05:35+0430 Pariya Razmdideh p.razmdideh@vru.ac.ir Abbas Ali Ahangar ahangar@english.usb.ac.ir Seyed Mojtaba Sabbagh-Jafari mojtaba.sabbagh@vru.ac.ir Gholamreza Haffari Gholamreza.Haffari@monash.edu <p>Rule-based machine translation (RBMT) captures linguistic information about the source and target languages. This information is retrieved from (bilingual) dictionaries and grammar rules. This paper proposes an active learning (AL) method to grow structural transfer rules at the chunker level. To this end, two sets of experiments are performed based on two types of sentences extracted from Mizan English-Persian Parallel Corpus which are selected manually and randomly. The results show adding newly written chunker rules to the transformation file using pool-based AL technique improves translation system more compared to a random chunker rule selection baseline.</p> 2019-07-05T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/626 ترجمه در گذر زمان: ترجمه و ضبط اسامی خاص 2019-10-18T21:59:13+0330 shima Tayebi Jazayeri shimat.jazayeri@gmail.com <p>ترجمه یکی از فعالیت‌هایی است که قدمتی در حدّ حیات بشر دارد. گرچه، عمل ترجمه به معنای برگرداندن از زبانی به زبان دیگر منحصر به یک دورۀ خاص نیست، شیوه‌های انجام آن با پیشرفت و تغییر فرهنگ جوامع دچار تحول زیادی می‌شود. مقالۀ حاضر به بخشی از این تغییرات در برهۀ تاریخی نود سال، یعنی از 1304 تاکنون می‌پردازد. پیکرۀ تحقیق را متون مطرح در این دوره تشکیل داده‌اند. نگارنده تغییرات در ترجمه و ضبط اسامی خاص را بررسی می‌کند. بدین ترتیب که، متون ادبی/داستانی مطرح در هر دوره برگزیده شده، اسامی خاص از متن مبدأ استخراج شده، سپس با متن مقصد مقایسه شده است. در این پژوهش، زبان مقصد فارسی است و زبان مبدأ بسته به شرایط هر دوره و زبان مبدأ حاکم در ترجمۀ متون ادبی آن دوره تعیین می‌شود. همچنین، در مواردی که اسامی خاص ترجمه یا نویسه‌گردانی شده‌اند نگارنده به دنبال شیوۀ غالب بوده است. نتایج تحقیق حاضر علاوه بر روشن کردن بخش کوچکی از تغییرات ترجمه در برهه‌ای از تاریخ در زمینۀ آموزش ترجمه راه‌گشای استادان است.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/625 Linguistic approach about radial semantic network in translation of taboos in al-tashahhi novel 2019-10-18T21:58:59+0330 عبدالباسط عرب یوسف آبادی arabighalam@yahoo.com <p>There is a relationship between language and cultural factors that gets tougher with expansion of Linguistic relations among nations. cultural linguists that analysis influence and influence of language and culture on each other believe that the language most affected can be subjected to vocabulary and interpretations of the language. entry that is considered taboo in Iran society. So translator role as a carrier of the source culture in the target language is important. there are some interpretations of some of the Arabic novels which is a language&nbsp; taboo in the iranian community and an interpreter in addition to trust should use the best solution to reduce the negative meaning of these taboos. translator can reach to this goal by providing a radial network of meaning. In this research we try to check taboos of altashahhi novel based on a descriptive-analytical method. the results indicate that radial network in the translation of al-tashahi taboo is very effective In maintaining the social self-sufficiency of the persian-speaking audience. also semantic implication (41%) authorized (26%) and said little (11%) is considered as the most frequent semantic network in the proposed translation of Al-Tashahi taboos.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/622 Neural Machine Translation by Genetic Algorithm to outperform the quality of En-Per MT system in Epistemic Modals (will and would) 2019-10-18T21:58:46+0330 Farahnaz Bagheri m.sepahangiz@gmail.com Jalil Faroughi Hendvalan j-faroughi@birjand.ac.ir Hossein Navidinia navidinia@yahoo.com <p>The fundamental issue that matters to researchers studying Machine Translation is finding double-bind relationship between language pairs. Fully Automatic Machine Translation which was a dream in distant vision, came into reality and even achievable for scientific and technical documents through neural network and evolutionary algorithms but, it still takes time. Comparing 12 distinctive modals in English with 4 ones (may, can, must, will) in Persian language, there are no semantically and syntactically equivalent words in both languages and this item we have considered explained that it is important to be aware of modals in MT system . Researchers chose epistemic modals among the others (exclusively will and its tentative form would) and broke these two types into thirty-two tokens and changed them into fine rules. Analyzing the results of translation quality in modals in two well-known MT systems: Google Translate with phrase-based statistical approach and SYSTRAN &nbsp;that applied Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Neural Network (NN) has depicted that these two MT systems need to be improved by other techniques or approaches. We proposed a gradient-free and population-based algorithm known as simple Genetic Algorithm (GA) combined with Neural Network and implemented theoretical findings into practice and Getting empirical results with high accuracy rate (91.28%) with little deviation of the proposed model demonstrated the efficiency of new devised system on En-Per MT system in modal part and lent the MT system a hand to tackle mistranslation of this constituent which made output unnatural and lack of integrity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/623 Cultural approach and emotioncy of language in translating advertising texts 2019-10-18T21:58:33+0330 نسرین الهی نیا nasrin.elahinia@gmail.com <p>In this article, we will look at the relationship between the "emotioncy" in translation studies and the concept of the "emotional stroke of translation". Emotional stroke means giving tne importance to emotion, which is one of the components of the emotioncy. The present paper, by defining the concept of emotioncy in the field of transcription, highlights the importance of paying attention to this concept so that translators, taking into account this new concept and the importance of placing it, translate the semantic load of the source text well into the reader of the intended text. Emotioncy, a combination of the two words, "emotion" and "frequency", refers to the emotional effects of austerity that are influenced by the frequency of vocabulary. In this research, we try to take into account this emerging concept and its three components (excitement, senses, and frequency) in translation, the effect of this concept in translating action, and especially in translating advertising messages. Hence, first we examine the concept of emotioncy, then we focus on the role of emotion in the process of information processing, and in the end, we will discuss the emotiona stroke in translation studies.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/621 Postcolonial Analysis of the Novel Laughing without Accent and its Translation Applying linguistic Appropriation Approach 2019-10-18T22:13:31+0330 فاطمه زند fateme_zand_1361@yahoo.com زینب شیخ حسینی zsheikhhosseini@gmail.com فاطمه زهرا نظری رباطی Nazari.sodo@gmail.com <p>Protecting local culture has expanded in different forms in contemporary literature and has developed a new literary genre called postcolonial literature. Indigenization of English language and its appropriation with language and culture of the former colonial countries is one of the characteristics of postcolonial writing that immigrant authors also enjoy it in writing from their experiences in diaspora and transferring their local culture which results in linguistic creativities. This study looked for elaboration of linguistic appropriations based on Kachru and Ashcroft theories in the English novel <em>laughing without Accent</em> and its translation to answer the following questions; can the English text of the novel be analyzed from postcolonial point of view according to linguistic appropriation theory? What strategies did the author use to make linguistic appropriations and create a postcolonial work? Were the linguistic appropriations transferred to Persian translation of the novel too? The results of the study showed that the author used glossing, un-translated words, contextual redefinition and inter language appropriation strategies in her novel and created a postcolonial text. This study also showed that some of these strategies like glossing and inter language appropriations entered the translation of the novel and made a hybrid text. The method of this study was descriptive and analytical.</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/619 Narratives of Nationalism in Paratexts 2019-05-26T23:14:49+0430 Reza Yalsharzeh reyalsharzeh@gmail.com <p>Focusing on the social function of translation, this study uses Niklas Luhmann’s (1995) social systems theory to investigate how, despite the translation of western viewpoints, the Iranian socio-political system seeks to maintain its position against these perspectives. To this end, four English books written by western authors about the Iran-Iraq war were selected and the paratextual reactions of the publisher to the western narratives were analyzed. Translation as a boundary phenomenon not only opens the Iranian system to different ideological perspectives about the war but also it is utilized to respond to the west’s dissenting ideological narratives about it. The paratextual space of the Persian translations studied here abounds in opposing narratives that challenge the western ideas about the war. These dissenting narratives which reflect a part of the ongoing ideological and discursive clashes between Iran and the west manifest the Iranian socio-political system’s attempt to draw a distinction between itself and its ideological rival and, therefore, to secure its own position against the other. The role of the paratextual materials of the Persian translations in distinguishing the Iranian socio-political system from the western one and in bolstering the prevailing nationalist accounts of the Iran-Iraq war becomes evident in this study.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/615 Aesthetic View of Armenian Poet on the Saadi 2019-10-18T21:58:19+0330 Mohammad Malek Mohammadi m.malekmohammadi@fgn.ui.ac.ir <p>Sa'adi's fame, his thoughts and ethical behaviors, and his aesthetic wonders have been considered by the many of the world's poets and intellectuals. Meanwhile, the well- known Armenian poet Avetik Isahakyan, without mastering the Persian language, has paid attention to the pages of the life of the elders of Persian poetry with a unique attitude. Isahakyan has shown his emotions and poetic feelings in praising Sa'adi. The Armenian poet has created a parable titled ‘The Last Spring of Saadi’ dedicated to aesthetics, ethical behaviors and the philosophy of poetry of the Sa'adi. The legend of ‘The Last Spring of Sa'adi’ is the only literary work where Sa'adi has been described as the main theme of a prose poem in the form of a parable in Armenia language. In this article, we tried to translate this work into Persian for the first time and analyzed the aesthetic value of this work.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/614 Resistance in Translations Published as White-Cover Books 2018-09-07T01:01:27+0430 Hussein Mollanazar hus.mollanazar@gmail.com Roya Ghaderi roya_ghaderi@ymail.com <p>The present study was an attempt to find out how the activist Persian translations published illegally as White-Cover books were resistant to the target culture. The study was based on Baker’s (2006) argument about where to look for the activist translators’ political work, i.e., the text selection and framing methods, including paratexts, timing of release, and place of release. For the study of the paratexts, Pellatt’s (2013) typology was adapted to cover all the paratextual elements included in the corpus. The study showed that resistance was manifest in all the areas examined, but in different forms. Resistance to censorship was more evident in the text selection and the non-verbal paratexts, whereas resistance to the dominant ideologies and the state was more visible in the verbal paratexts, especially in the prefatorial materials as well as the inclusion or exclusion of the names of the translators.</p> 2018-09-07T00:00:00+0430 Copyright (c) 0