Translation Studies Quarterly en-US Translation Studies Quarterly 1735-0212 Iranian Tele-Translators: Job Standards, Motivations and Satisfaction <p>Translation as a means of interlingual and intercultural communication denotes a cooperative and collaborative process including a number of agents. Recently, the role of translators in the modern transition industry has received much attention in relevant literature. Therefore, this study aims to deal with the professional standards of Iranian tele-translators indirectly employed by Iranian translation agencies. This is an applied study in terms of purpose and descriptive survey in terms of method. The statistical population consisted of all 170 tele-translators employed by Isfahan Safir Tarjomeh Melal, of whom 118 were selected as a research sample. Data were analyzed by SPSS 22 and descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The results showed that most tele-translators preferred to collaborate with translation agencies in more than one specialized field. Results also revealed that most tele-translators emphasized that the price of specialized translation projects should be higher than those of the general fields. Most of tele-translators preferred to collaborate with the translation agencies using an online panel. Finally, results demonstrated that most translators emphasized that discretionary bonus payment by translation agencies for tele-translators who work continuously is of utmost importance.</p> Maryam Poorgalavi Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 19 74 7 20 Translating Image Schemas <p>Image schema as one of the main ideas of cognitive linguistics emphasizes the fact that mental concepts are the result of our physical interaction with the environment and assist us to understand the abstract and non-abstract concepts. As these conceptual structures do not necessarily have similar manifestations in different cultures and languages, the present study aimed at investigating the most important English schemas as well as their relevant Persian subtitled translations in two American animations, namely <em>Frozen I</em> (2013) and <em>Frozen II</em> (2019), to determine the similarities and differences between these structures in the two languages. To this aim, the Image Schema Theory and its taxonomy for different types of schemas with a focus on containment, path and force schema were presented and discussed. The schemas in the original versions of Frozen I and Frozen II were accordingly identified and taxonomized under the subcategories of containment (as full-empty, in-out and surface) and path (as front-back, near-far, up-down, spiral, circle and contact) proposed by Pe&ntilde;a (2008) and force (as compulsion, blockage, counterforce, diversion, restraint removal and enablement) presented by Evans &amp; Green (2006). The comparison of the original schemas with their pertinent Persian subtitled translations demonstrated the applied strategies as description, substitution, omission, loan translation and addition. The results also indicated on foreignization as the dominant approach in the Persian subtitles.</p> Ahmad Iranmanesh Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 19 74 21 39 Revision Teaching and Revision Competence Acquisition in Iranian Universities <p>Revision is an indispensable part of the translation workflow in the industry; however, its definition remains ill-defined and its status has been marginalized in the translator training (Robert, 2008). The aim of this article is fourfold. In the first part, a survey was conducted, prior to the start of the revision course, to investigate students&rsquo; attitudes towards revision, their background knowledge, and competence. In the second part, a quantitative grading scheme, based on Mossop&rsquo;s (2019) formula, is proposed and employed to evaluate students&rsquo; acquisition of revision sub-competences, following the above-mentioned course. The third part of the study entails the discussions on the efficacy of the contents and methods chosen in translator training curriculum in Iranian universities and the impact of such training on students&rsquo; acquisition of revision sub-competences. This study finally ends with some insights and suggestions on the best ways to tailor revision courses to the needs of professionals in the translation industry.</p> Ahmad Kabiri Marzieh Izadi Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 19 74 7 24 The Turns of Translation Studies from a CDA Perspective <p>Inspired by Thomas Kuhn&rsquo;s theory of paradigm shift and guided by Fairclough&rsquo;s model of critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper is concerned with the turns of Translation Studies (TS) from a CDA perspective. It gives account of the way in which Polysystem theory as a nodal discourse redefined translation through the discursive processes of emergence and appropriation, contestation and hegemony, and recontextualization and colonization. This is done by conceptualizing the turns of TS as an order of discourse according to Fairclough&rsquo;s model. The paper attempts to show that the Polysystem theory, having been appropriated into TS, displaced the existing discourses within TS and redefined the methodological and epistemological status of translation by raising a cluster of new conceptual issues, which greatly contributed to the cultural turn in the field. It is concluded that a turn in TS occurs when the three areas of methodology, epistemology and ontology are redefined by discursive processes.</p> Mostafa Amiri Farzaneh Farahzad Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 19 74 25 40 What’s in a Name: The Metalanguage of Equivalence <p>Despite a plethora of theories and decades of efforts to pin down the nature of equivalence, it remains a notoriously contentious topic, so much so that scholars have run the gamut from its deification to its demonization. While many definitions of translation revolve around the concept of equivalence, for some, equivalence in translation is nothing more than a mere myth. This paper will first briefly survey the literature on the different attitudes towards equivalence from the second half of the 20th century. It then goes on to argue that the very naming of &lsquo;equivalence&rsquo; has further complicated this inherently multifaceted concept, and despite its naming that implies <em>equal value</em>, it is anything but. Against this backdrop, a new term is proposed instead in an attempt to address some of the concerns arising from the metalanguage of equivalence. Finally, the far-reaching implications of the current project for training translators and for the definition of translation itself are outlined.</p> Hossein Mollanazar Ghodrat Hassani Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 19 74 41 54 A Method for Microhistorical Translation/Translator Research: With a Focus on the Iranian Context <p>Microhistory can serve two functions in historical translation/translator studies. One is to discover the forgotten individual translators or to address the previously neglected issues concerning translations, translators, translational events, translation institutions, etc. And the other is to provide the translation/translator studies scholar with the means to take a fresh look at previously investigated topics. The two functions can be fulfilled through conducting a microscopic investigation of a topic and in light of discovering the overlooked primary sources as well as critical re-reading of the previously used sources. The purpose of this article is to propose a practical step-by-step method for microhistorical translation/translator research in the Iranian context. The article first briefly introduces microhistory. Because archives and primary sources are of great importance in microhistorical research, different types of sources are introduced afterwards. The paper then provides an overview of some of the existing microhistorical studies in the field of translation studies. After that, primary sources for a microhistorical translation/translator research are introduced and finally, a tentative method is proposed.</p> Zahra Atefmehr Farzaneh Farahzad Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 19 74 55 71 A Comparative Study of the Concept of Ideology in Marxism and in Translation Studies <p>Both Marxism and Translation Studies have a great body of writings on ideology. The close relationship between ideology and translation was first acknowledged by those scholars who used Cultural Studies&rsquo; theories and conceptions in Translation Studies (e.g., Susan Bassnett, Andre Lefevere, Theo Hermans, etc.), but There exists little consensus on the definition of the concept in the field. The present research is an attempt to review the origins and the history of the concept of ideology, and the engagement of Marx and Marxist tradition with the concept, in order to shed some light on the ambiguous state of the concept in Translation Studies. The available literature on ideology was reviewed in both Marxism and Translation Studies. Marxist theories of ideology were classified into three categories: critical, positive, and descriptive. The critical sense&mdash;ideology as false consciousness&mdash;is prominent in the writings of Marx. The positive notion of ideology is associated with class distinction and class consciousness. Finally the descriptive theories of ideology involve an anthropological study of the beliefs and rituals of certain groups. A survey of studies conducted on ideology in Translation Studies showed that except a few (e.g. Lefevere 1987 and Jacquemond 1992), majority of the studies used the concept of ideology in its descriptive sense.</p> Hussein Mollanazar Saeed Fuladi Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 19 74 72 86