Translation Studies Quarterly en-US (Hussein Mollanazar) (Hamid Sadeghieh) Fri, 14 Oct 2022 11:36:09 +0330 OJS 60 Ladmiral's Aphoristic Language at the Service of Elucidating the Intellectual and Philosophical Fields of His Thought <p>Jean-René Ladmiral is one of the most well-known and influential theorists in the field of translation studies, who has earned a worldwide reputation for coining the two terms of “sourciers” and “ciblistes”. But despite this reputation, it should be underlined that an important aspect of his personality has been neglected. This aspect stems from the theorist's connection to language, which leads him to the instantaneous creation of innumerable aphorisms. This research, based on an argumentative-deductive method, seeks to study this aspect in order to provide the reader with a clearer and deeper image of this theorist by examining the "logic", the "form" and the "content" of his aphorisms. The results of this study show that Ladmiral's aphorisms are rooted in a philosophical vision which, based on the logic of rationality, considers time to be short and language as an unsacred reality. Without trying to impose the opinion of the speaker, these aphorisms are demonstrated in interrogative, rhythmic, frank and humorous forms; in terms of content, they cover the essence of language, the experience in translating philosophical oeuvres, teaching advices, philosophical reflections, the insoluble question of death and the desperation in comprehending the complexity of the world.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Mahdi Farrokhi Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 14 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0330 Developing a Conceptual Model of Context-Aware Machine Translation <p>In this study, a context-based translation consisting of "usage, image and constituents" was proposed to reflect the intended and cultural aspects of a source sentence more precisely. Accordingly, the study is concerned with considering the perspectives of the context-based translation in visualizing and developing a conceptual model of machine translation in which a context-aware system has been of concern. This model resembles a function from X to Y. That is, there is an X-sequence, a machine-friendly sequence, as point of departure. Next, the given sequence is processed based on four modules of a context-aware system as follows: context acquisition, context modelling, context reasoning and context distribution. The processed outputs of the context-aware system are transformed into two sequential sequences: Z­<sub>1, </sub>a sequence arranged based on the source language context and Z<sub>2, </sub>the translated sequence of Z­<sub>1</sub> into target language. Then, the translated sequence (Z<sub>2</sub>) is converted into the Y-sequence, as the final proposed translation of the input. To enclose, the innovative aspects of the proposed model concerned a combined system processing based on both context-based and context-aware characteristics, not to mention the ending feedback sector receiving user’s satisfaction rate promotes the quality level of offered translation.</p> ابراهیم عزتی Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 14 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0330 Form, the Untranslatable Area of Poetry <p>According to the opinions of Russian formalists, literature is the factor that turns the literary material into a literary work, and it begins when defamiliarization takes place and the common and countless art forms of literary works leave their known state and appear differently to the reader. The importance of defamiliarization in the creation of language and literary work is to the extent that the poetry of the poem is focused on it and cannot be translated. The current research has explained the obstacles in the path of poetry translation based on the principles of the Russian school of formalism with a descriptive-analytical method. The results show that the translation of devices and the defamiliarization process as a factor in creating the device and ultimately the form of poetry is a difficult and almost impossible task. The weight, the music resulting from the combination of words, the defamiliarization of the semantic and structural domain that occurs through the use of many literary crafts, and the interaction of art forms in the process of forming the form and literariness of the text, are among the elements that are either lost in the translation process or in the form of a passive element is transferred.</p> somayeh assadi Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Wed, 02 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0330 Investigation of the Qajar Era Translators’ Knowledge of Translation Strategies and Principles <p>This study investigates knowledge of the Qajar era translators, from the reign of Naser al-Din Shah to the end of Qajar period (1848–1925), of translation principles and strategies using paratextual elements. To conduct the research, first, a list of translated works, published in the mentioned period, was compiled. The list included 372 translations, of which 207 were published in the Naseri era and 165 in the post-Constitutional period. Then to access the translations, various archives were examined. From among the 372 translation titles in the list, 199 translations were found in the archives. Finally, the 199 translations were studied in terms of paratextual elements, including translators’ pre/postfaces, footnotes, marginalia, and other notes in translations. Findings of this study challenge some prevalent generalizations about the Qajar era translators’ disregard for faithfulness in translation. Moreover, the study reveals that among the Qajar era translators some were familiar with text types, types of translation, different translation strategies and translation purpose.</p> Zahra Atefmehr Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 14 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0330 Geographical Dimension and Translation <p>Translation has always been shaped and reshaped by a geographical dimension since our contemporary world is marked above all by movement and connection. Against this background the current paper aimed at unfolding the relationship between geography and translation conceptualization in the discipline of Translation Studies. First the terms related to geography were defined and then the conceptualization process was investigated. Among space-related concepts, it became apparent that ‘territory’ and ‘nation’, in modern sense, have been used more than others to conceptualize and theorize translation. Then, the relationship between territory and nation in Translation Studies was studied, explicating the manifestations of these two notions in concepts and theories of the field. Upon critical analysis, it was discerned that translation is mostly defined as a linguistic movement between two distinct geographical territories, and the modern conception of ‘one nation-one language’ has been the underlying assumption of translation research. Such a positioning is problematic since fixity and stability assigned to ‘territory’ is contested in today’s world and there are also instances of translation that fall outside the realm of this positioning and are generally neglected.</p> Samar Ehteshami Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 14 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0330 Stylistic Issues in Translations of Modern Literary Texts <p>The present study aimed to investigate strategies employed in translating style through time and enhance the current models. To achieve this aim, Samuel Beckett, one of the prominent writers of the twentieth century with his unique style, opted. His novel <em>Malone Dies</em> and its three Persian translations by Kianoush (1968), Navid (2004), and Sommi (2015) were analyzed. Each sentence of <em>Malone Dies </em>was compared with its translations by applying Baker’s model (1996). The model consists of <em>Simplification</em>, <em>Explicitation</em>, <em>Normalization</em> or <em>Conservatism</em>, and <em>Leveling out.</em> The results showed that <em>Simplification </em>and <em>Explicitation </em>were generally the most frequently used strategies. For Kianoush and Navid, the former strategy, and for Sommi, the latter strategy was the most employed ones. Also, based on the results, the effect of time on the selection of strategies could not be overlooked totally. Moreover, it was found that four other strategies named <em>Preservation</em>, <em>Distortion</em>, <em>Exoticization, </em>and <em>Deletion</em> could be added to enhance Baker’s (1996) model.</p> Mahmoud Afrouz, Maryam Hosseinpour Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 14 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0330 Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Consecutive Interpreter Training from Students’ Perspectives <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed new demands on the global educational system and many classes are currently being held online. Based on Kelly’s (2005) evaluation framework, the present study is an attempt to explore the advantages and disadvantages of online interpreter training from students’ point of view. To do so, 24 students who had successfully passed an online consecutive interpreting course completed a questionnaire, which was developed by the researcher. The responses to the questionnaire items were analyzed and codes and themes were extracted. The results indicated that two thirds of the students were dissatisfied with online implementation of the course mainly due to technical and psychological problems they had experienced. However, a third of students were satisfied with online interpreter training via Adobe Connect, citing several educational, personal, and psychological benefits they gained from the course. Based on the congruity between the identified themes and the main tenets of constructivism, it was found that the online course was more compatible with cognitive rather than social constructivist principles. Finally, the pedagogical implications of the findings were discussed.</p> <p> </p> Hossein Bahri Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 14 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0330 Assessing the English Translation of Grand Ayatollah Khorasani’s Book of Islamic Laws with Reiss’s Model <p> </p> <p>Religious texts, particularly texts of religious laws, are among the most delicate and crucial kinds of texts to translate. This paper examined the English translation of Grand Ayatollah Hossain Wahid Khorasani’s book of Islamic laws through the window of Katerina Reiss. Reiss's theory has three levels. First, the text type (informative, expressive, or persuasive) is decided. Then, the linguistic elements are analyzed and it proceeds with the examination of the extra-linguistic determinants. This text is certainly informative and content-focused. Applying Reiss’s theory of criticism to this text, the researcher came to the conclusion that firstly, Reiss’s model could be applied to texts of Islamic laws, and secondly, the English translation of Grand Ayatollah Wahid Khorasani’s book of Islamic laws met 80 percent of Reiss's suggested requirements for a translation. Furthermore, the findings indicated that most mismatches of Reiss’s criteria in this translation pertained to the semantic elements (linguistic components). Moreover, the place factors were mainly overlooked in the translation.</p> Mohammad Shanazary Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 14 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0330 Activist translation as a means to oppose imperialism in Iran <p>Translation can be considered an activist means and an influential instrument of furthering large programs of political and social change. One such change can be promoting the ideas against imperialism within a society from many different perspectives using a variety of practices. Accordingly, the present study aimed to analyze the activist role of translation in developing ideas on anti-imperialism in Iran from 1925 to 2021 in terms of selecting works for translation. To this end, a historical analysis of translations of highly circulated literary works focused on anti-imperialism was conducted using an exploratory-analytical approach. The data were collected based on “What” question from among the set of questions proposed by D’hulst (2010) to analyze the history of translation. Accordingly, to find the answer to “What” question, it was first attempted to identify the literary works focused on anti-imperialism that have been translated and published from 1925 to 2021. The paratextual resources of the translations were also investigated to check if there was any particular information, directly or indirectly, suggesting that the translation of the literary work was used as a means to define an autonomous identity. The activist role of translation was determined based on the stage translation could be placed in, from among the three stages of activism in translation against imperialism. The results revealed that in dimension of selecting literary works with anti-imperialism as one of their main themes, the activist practice of translating works with an anti-imperialist stance stands within the second stage of activism. This stage suggests activist practice of translation in opposing cultural imperialism has taken place but still no autonomous identity is sought to be defined beyond polarized thinking and binary oppositions set by the dominating powers.</p> Azita Ghazizadeh, Hussein Mollanazar Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 14 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0330 Dialectic of Manipulation in Autopoietic Interpreting <p>The study of manipulation in translation has drawn significant attention in translation and interpreting studies. Yet, the ontological, epistemological, and teleological aspects of manipulation have almost remained untapped. The present study argues for the critical role of dialectic of manipulation in interpreting (DMII) – manipulative interpretation of manipulative source text. To this end, Trump’s first UN address on Iran in 2017 and its simultaneous interpretation into Persian are examined, by way of exemplar, in the light of integrating Luhmann’s (1986, 1995) autopoietic social system theory at the macro-level of discourse into Baker’s (2006) socio-communicative narrative theory at the micro-level of discourse. Findings suggest that where dialectic of manipulation is at play in the interpretation of political discourse, interpreting along with its ST as an autopoietic subsystem of the communication social system could possibly play its enlightening and emancipatory role in a) laying bare the ideological moves and unequal power relations encoded and embedded in the representation of the world; b) in circulating or contesting narratives; and c) in giving rise to, interestingly enough, the autopoieticly subversive and retaliatory interpretation (ASRI) triggered by what Foucault terms regimes of truth.</p> Rasool Moradi-Joz, Saeed Ketabi, Mansoor Tavakolli Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 14 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0330 Historiography as Translation <p>Historiography, the writing of history, is thought of as translation of facts into narrative fictions. The translational nature of historiography holds more tenable when historians engage in writing the history of other cultures in their own native language. Some historians also, like cultural anthropologists, engage in cultural translation, since they usually not only travel and use translation to gather their raw material, but also translate the cultural practices of land they are writing its history. Relying on Asad’s (2018) view of cultural anthropology and narrativist historians and in the light of a transdisciplinary view of translation, the present article seeks to show how Greek historiography can be assumed as a translational practice. Second, it aims to explore the translational character of the three leading Classical Greek historians of ancient Persia, Herodotus, Ctesias and Xenophon, and seeks to show how the historiography of the Persian Achaemenid empire is folded through translation, not only in ancient era, but also in modern times, through (re)translations of these so-called primary sources.</p> Zeinab Amiri, Farzaneh Farahzad Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Fri, 14 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0330