Translation Studies Quarterly en-US (Hussein Mollanazar) (Hamid Sadeghieh) Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0330 OJS 60 The Role of Translation in the Revival of Prose Shāhnāmeh Books in the 9th and 10th Centuries <p><em>Shāhnāmeh</em> books realize the epic poetry in Persian culture whose history dates back to the time of the Achaemenids. In the 9<sup>th</sup> and 10<sup>th</sup> centuries that the Persian culture reinvigorated after the Arab invasion, prose and poetry <em>Shāhnāmeh</em> books were revived in Persian. In order to compose prose Shāhnāmeh books, the Persian elite had no choice but translating the Pahlavi versions into Persian. Moreover, some of the Arabic versions of Khwatāy Nāmag books already translated from Pahlavi, were translated into Persian as another source to recompose prose <em>Shāhnāmeh</em> books by the writers who were patronized by the political elite. The Persian cultural products and capitals were sponsored since they could be converted to symbolic capital and political power in the field- according to Bourdieu&rsquo;s terminology. The Introduction of <em>Abū-Mansūrī Shāhnāmeh</em> as one of the oldest texts in Persian -narrates how it was composed through translation from Pahlavi by four translators. It exemplifies the role that translation from Pahlavi and Arabic into Persian had in the revival of prose <em>Shāhnāmeh</em> books in the 9<sup>th</sup> and 10<sup>th</sup> centuries.</p> Mohammadreza Hosseini Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0330 Legal and Religious Rules of Translation in Iran <p>Translation studies have undergone many upheavals throughout history. The important question that arises is that what extent translators of Islamic countries, in addition to learning the theories, principles and methods of the translation, have learned the legal and religious rules of Islam regarding translation? Islamic systems, including Iran, have special legal and religious rules regarding translation and translators, so that translators can use them to fulfill their legal and religious responsibilities while acting on the principles of translation. One of the aims of this research, in addition to addressing these rules, is to examine the awareness level of English translators about them. In order to do this, 66 English translators in Iran from different fields of translation were evaluated and their legal and religious knowledge about translation and translator was measured by a questionnaire whose reliability and validity were confirmed. The results showed that a) In general, the level of knowledge of the participants about the legal &amp; religious rules is not desirable. B) There is no significant relationship between the degree of education and the knowledge of translators about these rules. C) Most translators have a positive attitude towards the need to learn these rules D) The most way for translators to obtain legal information is through personal studies and in relation to religious (sharia) is the web environment.</p> Mehdi Lavaee Moghaddam Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0330 Study and Analysis of the Translation of the Passage "Lau Kontom Ta’lamoun" in the Holy Qur’an <p>The translation of the <em>Holy Qur&rsquo;an</em> is highly important because it is the word of revelation and the charter of good life. Correct understanding of the verses and its correct translation into the target language requires the translator's mastery of linguistic tools and semantic theories. This research tries to use Abdul Qahir&rsquo;s Order theory, "Halliday and Hasan&rsquo;s Cohesion and Austin&rsquo;s Speech Acts to explain the structure of "<em>lau kontom ta&rsquo;lamoun</em>" in Verse 4 of Surah Nooh and compares the translations of Haddad Adel and Fooladvand with this view. The result of the research shows that the translation of the letter "Lu" in this verse is more effective as a wish word.</p> Masumeh Pouya, Farhad Divsalar Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0330 Censorship Evasion in Fiction Translation <p>As one of the dominant discourses and a repressive act, censorship is articulated and manifested in everyday practices; however, diverse strategies have been used to escape censorship or repression since ancient times. The following questions were answered in this paper: How has censorship been practiced in Afghanistan? Were there cases (if any) where translators avoided censorship? How and in what domains have translators avoided censorship in translation? What were the strategies adopted, and how frequent were they? What were the motivations behind the evasions? To that end, translations during 1933&ndash;2021 were analyzed using the researchers&rsquo; developed taxonomy for detecting translation strategies and censorship evasion instances. It seems that the types of censorship imposed varies and shifts as the governmental administrations changed. In addition, censorship evasions have occurred in different domains of Afghan society. Moreover, Clause Structure Change was used frequently, and Cultural Censorship Evasion overrode other censorship evasion types that were identified from data. It is concluded that state codes and the types of regimes have prompted censorship evasions to a great degree.</p> Bezhan Pazhohan, Hossein Mollanazar Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0330 Manipulation and Reception of English Translation of Rubaiyat by the Victorians <p>This study investigates the English translation of Omar Khayyam&rsquo;s Rubaiyat by Edward Fitzgerald in the Victorian age. Khayyam was the great Iranian mathematician, philosopher, and poet whose Rubaiyat received a warm reception by the British audience of the 19<sup>th</sup> century. Using a comparative descriptive method, the study first intends to show how an exotic text from the East was introduced to the British audience, how Fitzgerald added an orientation to the translation, in what ways he accomplished that orientation, and why the Victorians welcomed Khayyam&rsquo;s poetry. To achieve this, the study first discusses the reasons for Khayyam&rsquo;s good reception in Victorian age Britain. The discussions depicted that the carpe diem philosophy prevalent in Rubaiyat attracted many Victorians experiencing the religious doubt discourse of the 19<sup>th</sup> century. Then, forty quatrains of Rubaiyat which contain culturally specific items were selected purposefully and compared with their English translations using Bassnett and Lefevere&rsquo;s (1998) cultural manipulation theory to determine how Fitzgerald manipulated the original quatrains. Ten out of forty quatrains were discussed in this study as examples to show how Persian cultural-specific concepts were dealt with in the translation. The results implied that Fitzgerald removed references to the Persian cultural concepts in translating Khayyam, indicating British colonial and imperialistic attitudes towards the East.</p> Reza Yalsharzeh, Roya Monsefi, Reza Shojaeniya Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0330 Formation of Drama Translation Field in Pahlavi I (1925–1941) <p>This research investigates the process of the gradual rise of drama translation field in an Iranian context, drawing on Bourdieu&rsquo;s theoretical framework. This framework is used to examine the relationship between this cultural production and its social agents in Pahlavi I (1925&ndash;1941). Understanding the phases of the formation of this field depends on understanding a number of socio-cultural factors affecting drama translation and different agents&rsquo; practices. To investigate the influence of these factors on agents&rsquo; practices a context-oriented research is conducted at the macro-structural level. The findings are analysed by Bourdieu&rsquo;s key concepts of field, habitus, and capital. It is also argued that there are important social agents who have contributed significantly to the structure of the field and its boundaries. The main conclusion drawn from the study is that socio-cultural developments over the certain period reshaped the structure of Iranian society. Iran saw the progressive rise of different social fields and also the emergence of new cultural agents and culture space witnessed the rise of drama translation thanks to attempts by agents belonging to two highly active fields of power and theatre. Moreover, in this period, the existence of two different translatorial habitus shaped the poetics of drama translation: translation for page and translation for stage which means that there were two different translatorial habitus in operation: domestication and foreignisation.</p> Farideh Shabani Rad Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0330 Examining Idiomaticity of Short Stories in Translation: Creativity or Fidelity? <p>Idiomatic expressions serve a pivotal role in conveying meanings, evoking feelings, and introducing cultural-historical backgrounds whose proper rendition into meaningful equivalents is one of the most demanding parts of translation enterprise. This challenging task largely depends on the creativity of the translator who seeks to maintain the stylistic balance between the source text (ST) and target text (TT). This study examines the translator&rsquo;s creativity in terms of different idiomatic expressions used in the Persian translations of <em>The Bet, The Story-Teller</em>, and<em> The Closed Shop</em>, which were analyzed through content analysis. The results of comparison and contrast of the TTs with their STs indicated that the translator not only conveyed the essence of the STs&rsquo; idiomatic expressions preserving most of their semantic aspects but also used some appropriate idioms in the TTs corresponding to non-idiomatic STs. As it apparently seems that the English language is possibly richer in idioms than Persian, the findings tend to suggest the translator&rsquo;s creativity in the use of idiomatic expressions.</p> Sara Zandian Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0330 Translating Taboo Language in the 1390s <p>The aim of this study was to discover the prevailing strategies of translating taboos in the 1390s/~2010s. To this end, four Persian translations of J. D. Salinger&rsquo;s <em>The Catcher in the Rye</em>, published in the mentioned decade, were investigated. However, to make a comparison between strategies of translating taboo words and expressions in the 1390s/~2010s and the pre-Islamic Revolution era, the only translation of the novel published before the Islamic Revolution was also examined. This study adopted a mixed theoretical framework, one to detect the taboo items and the other to analyse the collected taboos with respect to the translation strategies. To carry out the research, first, the taboo items of the source text were extracted. Then the 124 taboos extracted from the source text were compared to their Persian counterparts with respect to translation strategies. Findings of the study showed great diversity regarding the adopted strategies, possibly highlighting the role of translators&rsquo; personal decisions, rather than norm-based decisions, in translating taboo items.</p> Milad Bigdeloo Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0330