Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts en-US mollanazar@translationstudies.ir (Hussein Mollanazar) sadeghieh@translationstudies.ir (Hamid Sadeghieh) Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0430 OJS 3.3.0.11 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Localization and Alienation in Translating the Titles of Children's Story Books https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/972 <p>Topics such as localization and alienation become more important when the readers of translation are children as they become acquainted with foreign culture and cultural elements through translation. Therefore, translators working in this field face many problems. Fiction constitutes a major share of children’s literature. This section has its own characteristics. For example, in the titles of story books, there is the possibility of cultural-specific items (CSIs) and names. As a result, translators in this field have to use different techniques to convey foreign language concepts. The present study aims to identify the prevailing strategies and techniques in translating the titles of children’s story books. To do this, the main titles of story books for children aged 3–6 years during the 1390s SH in Iran were examined. The corpus of this study consisted of 90 titles of children’s story books and the techniques used in each were identified according to the model of Vinay and Darbelnet (1958). The results showed that translators in the field of children's literature, in this period, have used both localization and alienation strategies in translating these titles, but the percentage of each strategy is different. Translators have largely used the localization strategy, in particular equivalence or idiomatic translation procedures. On the other hand, in alienation strategy, the literal translation or literal translation and calque were the most and least frequently used strategies, respectively. The results will be a guide for translators in choosing strategies for translating cultural specific items in children’s literature.</p> Mehdi Lavaee Moghaddam, Matin Mojahed Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/972 Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0430 A Comparison of the Status quo of Interpreting at Iranian and Foreign Universities https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/954 <p>It seems very unlikely to imagine the present world without interpreting and interpreters. This has been taken into consideration by many countries throughout the world. Many universities around the world have regarded translation and interpreting as two different things and designed respective competence-based curricula for them. The present descriptive study was an attempt to figure out the status quo of interpreting programs in Iranian as well as international universities and examine the necessity of offering interpreting in Iran. The findings indicated that interpreting as both a task and a program is of paramount importance to many universities and organizations worldwide in such a way that it is being offered and taught at different universities at a postgraduate level. On the other hand, no interpreting program at any level is being offered at Iranian universities which justifies the many errors or mistakes committed by Iranian interpreters who have not undergone specific education to acquire the competences required and only do the task out of experience. The current study, thus, recommends interpreting be offered as a must at Iranian universities so they can train highly-qualified interpreters meeting the standards and requirements of the professional market.</p> Abouzar Oraki Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/954 Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0430 Colonial and Imperialist Traces of the American Transcendentalist Poet Ralph Waldo Emerson in Translating Hafez's Poetry https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/943 <p>This article examines the colonial and imperialist traces of Ralph Waldo Emerson, the founder of the American school of transcendentalism, in translating Hafez's poetry. The main issue of this research is why Emerson paid attention to Hafez's poetry and why did Emerson translate <em>Masnavi</em> number two of Hafez? The purpose of this article is to show that Emerson's translation of <em>Masnavi</em> No. 2 of Hafez's <em>Divan</em> accords with the concepts of Orientalism, that is, in his translation of Hafez's poetry, he considers the West superior and the East inferior. The research method of this article is descriptive, analytical and library-oriented and the theoretical framework of the article is based on the orientalist theories of Edward Said. The results of this article show that Emerson translated and distorted Hafez's poem according to his Western standards and introduced it as portraying wine and homosexuality.</p> Roohollah Roozbeh Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/943 Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0430 Review and Critique of Russian Translations of the Word Ahl al-Bayt (Relatives of the Prophet) in the Verse of Al-Tathir (Purification) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/992 <p>The verse of purification refers to the final part of the thirty-third verse of <em>Surah Al-Ahzab</em>. What Muslims understand from the word "<em>Ahl al-Bayt</em>" in this noble verse is the family of the Holy Prophet of Islam, but the opinion of Shiite commentators is different from the opinion of a number of Sunni commentators in the case of "<em>Ahl al-Bayt</em>". In the present article, we have descriptively examined the ten Russian translations of this verse and, in particular, the translation of the word "<em>Ahl al-Bayt</em>" in them. All Russian translators except Prokhova (1989) have translated or interpreted the word "<em>Ahl al-Bayt</em>" in such a way that the "wives of the Prophet" (PBUH) are also among the <em>Ahl al-Bayt</em>. In the footnote and explanation of Prokhova's translation, the main example of "<em>Ahl al-Bayt</em>", namely the five members of <em>Ali-Abba</em>, is mentioned. Relating the first part of verse 33 to the holy verse of purification and the translators' use of the interpretations that have given a wrong interpretation of the word "<em>Ahl al-Bayt</em>" are the reasons for the incorrect translation of this word in the studied translations.</p> Mahnush Eskandary Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/992 Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0430 Examining the Equivalents of the Phrase "Be'ghayr-i Hesāb" (without calculation) in the Qur'an https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/973 <p>Semantic equality and the selection of appropriate equivalents under words and phrases are among the issues that should be considered in translating texts. Matter of (<em>hā</em>, sin, <em>bā</em>) has been used in the <em>Qur'an</em> with relatively high frequency and in various semantic ranges. This research descriptively-analytically examines the translations of the following verses, including the words "without calculation", and according to the lexical and historical sources and reflecting on the context and structure of the verses in question, provides more accurate institutionalization and translation (Fooladvand, Ayati, Elahi Ghomshei, Mousavi Hamedani, Ansarian) has been considered. The result is that most of the above translators, in presenting the translation (<em>Be'ghayr-i Hesāb</em>) have used the equivalent of the hand tail (without calculation) and despite the semantic multiplicity of this phrase in different verses, have not adopted an exact equivalent for it. Ghomshei's divine translation has been used more accurately in equating than other translations. The considered equations of the phrase (Be'ghayr-i Hesāb) include "plurality", "without calculation", "without compensation", "out of material calculations", which can be deduced according to the meaning of sustenance and gift in the verse and also according to the context of the verses.</p> Fatemeh Qorbani Laktarashani, Habibollah Halimi Jeloudar Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/973 Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0430 A Historical Account of Medical Translation in Qajar Era https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/997 <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the history of medical translation in Qajar era. In order to carry out this research, data was collected from the available bibliographies or other sources, and after extracting the titles of related books, each book was checked in the libraries or on the Internet. The gathered data was analyzed based on Pym’s (1998) model. The findings of this study showed that in the early years of Qajar era, traditional medicine was commonly practiced but under the influence of modernization movements, traditional medicine gave way to modern methods. Moreover, factors such as the establishment of scientific centers, especially <em>Dar-al-fonūn</em>, sending students abroad and employing foreign professors played a role in institutionalization of modern medicine. Translation played an important part in dissemination of new medical knowledge. The collected data revealed that during Qajar era about 446 medical books were translated, primarily from Arabic and then French, Latin, Indian and English, under 19 medical subjects. Thematic review of these books showed that the field of internal medicine with 100 titles had the highest frequency, followed by traditional medicine with 86 titles, pharmacology, anatomy and surgery, infectious illnesses, medicinal plants, sexually transmitted diseases, obstetrics and gynaecology and finally pathology and ophthalmology. In addition, Persian was the primary target language for translation, followed by Arabic, Urdu, and Turkish.</p> Mojgan Ghaffari, Afsaneh Mohammadi Shahrokhi Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/997 Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0430 Resistance Literature, Translation and the Discourse of Committed Literature https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/995 <p>Resistance Literature in Iran is often associated with the literature of war and especially the literature of Sacred Defense. However, the term “resistance” can also refer to other forms of resistance, including resistance to the cultural domination of the West, the various forms of authoritarian regimes, totalitarian regimes, and imperialist powers, as well as resistance to any form of racial, class, and gender discrimination. In all these cases, the underlying premise is that literature has a duty, an obligation, and a mission. Using a historical approach, this article attempts to show that what is now called Resistance Literature has its roots in a translated and imported discourse called the discourse of committed literature, which derives some of its premises from the socialist realism supported and propagated by the Tudeh Party, and then from the concept of engaged literature as defined by the existentialists. In other words, by examining the historical documents and contexts and relying on the role of translators, this article explores the historical roots of committed literature in Iran, which can be considered the source of Resistance Literature.</p> Marzieh Malekshahi Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/995 Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0430 A Road Map to the Development of Indigenous Translation Studies in Iran https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/967 <p>In recent years, special attention has been devoted to indigenization of humanities in Iran. The purpose of this conceptual research is to provide a map for the development of indigenous Translation Studies. The “term” indigenous here means alignment with indigenous goals and needs. The map provided includes 10 components as follows: (1) designing updatable comprehensive/specialized corpora of translations from and into Persian, (2) translating Translation Studies literature into Persian and standardization of terminology, (3) providing indigenous models of translation history in Iran, (4) critically investigating the theories of translation in the Iranian context, (5) sociology of translation and translators, (6) conducting bibliometric research, (7), holding meetings to develop theorizing, debates, and criticism, (8) conducting conceptual research, (9) purposeful translation, systematic critique of translations and moving from translation to non-translational writing, and (10) promoting the status of Translation Studies and the image of the general public from Translation and Translation Studies. The map, together with its components, by no means indicate that nothing has been done in this regard as a lot of activities have been done. The purpose of the research was juts to offer an integrated map. The map needs to be criticized, which then may result in changes in its components.</p> Mohammad Reza Rezaeian Delouei Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/967 Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0430 Literary Translation Flow from Kurdish into Persian between 1997 and 2021: A Sociological Study https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/991 <p>This study surveyed the translation flow from Kurdish literature into Persian over the period of 1997 through 2021 in the context of the sociological-analytic framework, developed and discussed by Heilbron (1999; 2000) and Sapiro (2007; 2014). To this end, firstly, the National Library and Archives of Iran (NLAI) was consulted as the most comprehensive database in Iran, which contains nearly all translated Kurdish literature into Persian, and secondly, personal webpages of the Kurdish translators like Telegram channels and Instagram pages were searched to compile a bibliography. This bibliography included meta-data such as original text titles, author’s name, title of the translated text, translator’s name, publisher’s name, place of publication, year of publication and literary form (genre). The exhaustive list amounted to 160 literary works translated and published throughout the aforementioned period. This bibliography was then analyzed employing Pieta’s (2016) model. The findings demonstrate that, while poetry dominated the translation flow, it followed an unstable movement, whereas prose took a progressive and steady growth and was the popular genre among the most prolific publishers and translators. The findings also reveal an unbalanced distribution of translated works among translators, authors and publishers. The conclusions drawn from this study highlight a close affinity among individuals including translators, well-known authors and small-scale publishers working collaboratively and actively in order to promote peripheral literature in a more well-established manner. </p> Milad Miraki, Nima Noushmand Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/991 Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0430 Writer’s Style in Translation https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/970 <p>This paper examines translating FID (free indirect discourse) as Woolf’s stylistic feature in three Persian translations of TTL (To the Lighthouse). As a dual voice hypothesis, FID shows how the narrator’s voice has been merged with that of the characters’. However, the problem is whether the translator should translate STR structurally at the micro-level or functionally at the macro-level. FID has some syntactic, semantic, and textual features that might undergo some changes in the process of translation. As one of the grammatical features of FID, the progressive aspect is related to the character’s focalization but reported by the narrator’s voice through the past tense. Functionally speaking, three Persian translators have done their best to convey the effect and function of FID regarding both syntactic and semantic features. Through a quantitatively driven methodology, this paper has tried to tackle the issue of translating FID into Persian. However, Hosseini has felt that the shift from ID (indirect discourse) to DD (direct discourse) might transfer the ‘feel’ and the ‘tone’ of the ST. Keyhân has made the complexity of Woolf’s style more explicit and simplified. Bejâniân has paid less attention to Woolf’s style, giving a very literal and simplified rendering. Generally, the three translations by the three Persian translators have tried to recreate such feelings of FID as sympathy and empathy in the target readers, though with varying degrees. However, Hosseini has tried both to keep the stylistic features of Woolf and to present a translation for the target readers; a translation that creates the exact feelings of reading a Persian story in their minds.</p> Abolfazl Horri Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/970 Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0430 A Pragmatic Analysis of the Quranic Temporal Discourse Markers in Parallel Corpora https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/977 <p>The aim of present research was the analysis and exploration of two Persian translators’ pragmatic approaches in rendering <em>اذ</em> and <em>اذا-</em> two Quranic temporal discourse markers- comparatively into Persian. The research was supported by Coherence and Translation Spotting Theories and also a DMs inventory was applied in the analysis of the parallel corpora. The results revealed that rendering of these Quranic temporal discourse markers (TDMs) was approached differently by the translators. The analysis of Persian parallel corpora revealed that the translation of these Quranic TDMs was tackled creatively and innovatively by appealing to temporal, contrastive, elaborative, inferential DMs, and their combinations. Moreover, imperative forms, adverbs of time and manner, conditional structures, and paraphrasing were employed. The analysis of the findings reveals creativity, flexibility, and novelty in structural, semantic, and pragmatic approach to discourse construction in translation. Furthermore, as some of these equivalents are not offered in Arabic-Persian dictionaries and are not covered in grammar source books of Arabic language, researchers, scientists, teachers, material developers are recommended to approach teaching, lexicography and material development pragmatically and revise their approaches on the basis of the implications derived from parallel corpora investigations.</p> Ali Mohammad Mohammadi Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/977 Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0430 Contribution of Literary Journals of Bahār and Dāneshkadeh to Persian Poetry Translation (1328–1341AH/1910–1923) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/944 <p>Poetry translation appears to be an under-investigated area in the translation history of Iran. Although no definite time period can be determined for practicing poetry translation in Iran, the present study attempts to show that such a marginal practice was seriously considered during the late Qajar era (1328–1341AH/1910–1923). By exploring first-hand and second-hand sources, archival documents and manuscripts related to poetry on the one hand, and translation practices on the other hand, the present study identified that the two literary journals of Bahār and Dāneshkadeh started the practice of poetry translation during the specified period. The data analysis showed that they contributed to the practice and theory of poetry translation in different forms of poetic translation, prose translation, eqterāh adabi or literary adaptation and rewritings, including introductory essays about foreign poetry and poets. In conclusion, these novel forms together with some theoretical reflections on poetry translation could pave the way for the formation of the tent of poetry translation in the translation poetics of the late Qajar era.</p> Maryam Saeidi Copyright (c) 2022 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/944 Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0430