Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts en-US mollanazar@translationstudies.ir (Hussein Mollanazar) sadeghieh@translationstudies.ir (Hamid Sadeghieh) Sun, 18 Oct 2020 20:37:25 +0330 OJS 3.2.1.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Pseudotranslation in Dr. Ali Shariati’s Books https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/843 <p>According to Toury (1995) pseudotranslation happens when we are concerned with “texts which have been presented as translations with no corresponding source texts in other languages ever having existed” (p.47). An example of this phenomenon is evident in Dr. Shariati’s writings which he has attributed to a nonexistent professor called Chandelle. To evaluate the claim from a scientific point of view four books by Dr. Ali Shariati were selected as corpora of the study and CUSUM&nbsp;(cumulative&nbsp;<em>sum</em>&nbsp;control chart) technique was used to analyze writing style of Dr. Shariati and the so called professor Chandelle. The results of the analysis revealed that Dr. Shariati has used pseudotranslation strategy in his books and what he has claimed as translations from Chandelle’s writings are in fact his own words. The reason for his usage of pseudotranslation has been the political conditions of the time that made him hide his identity to avoid prosecution.</p> Mahvash Gholami, Mina Abdi Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/843 Review and evaluation of Ali Abbas Zoleikheh’s translation of Masnavi, Book1, according to Mona Baker’s theory. https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/841 <p class="Body">One of the major challenges that a translator faces in translating literary works is poetry. In such translations, not only selecting suitable equivalents but also transferring the poet's purpose is of the utmost importance because it is highly effective in the reader’s understanding as well as the poem aesthetic. In translating literary works, particularly poems, grammatical structures are of paramount importance. As syntax varies from language to language, to accurately translate meaning from the source language to the target language, equivalence in translation fulfills this key objective. According to Mona Baker’s theory of “Structural Equivalence”, by using the descriptive-analytical method, the grammatical structures as well as the meaning of poems are examined in two parts. Part one is the analysis of morphology including accountable /uncountable nouns, person, gender, tenses, and regular/ irregular verbs. However, in part two grammatical structures of the translation are examined by using several poems that are translated by Zoleikheh. The obtained result shows that even though Zoleikheh has put a lot of effort into translating Masnavi into Arabic, he could not transfer the poet's purpose, and that is because of an incorrect way of reading some verses and also using the inappropriate lexicon and syntax. Therefore, readers face difficulties understanding some meanings and long contents will not be transmitted to the Arabic language.</p> Elham kakavand, simin valavi Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/841 Catford’s Translation Shifts in the Translation of Vocabulary-learning Books from English to Persian https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/840 <p><em>Abstract</em></p> <p><em>This study was an attempt to investigate the realization of Catford's translation shifts in translated English vocabulary-learning books by determining their frequency of occurrence. For this purpose, 7 popular vocabulary books were selected and 210 sampled pairs were chosen and analyzed according to Catford's framework of translation shifts. The obtained data revealed that the Structural Shift was the most frequent translation shift and the Level Shift was the least common type of Catford's shift in the selected translations. In essence, the linguistic similarity and dissimilarity between English and Persian could explain the reason why the two shifts were the most and the least frequent Catford's shifts in the chosen translations of vocabulary books that is to say 100% and 0% respectively. Furthermore, the study indicated that only 11.90 % of the selected translations had undergone Class Shift which means that English and Persian can offer equivalents of the same part of speech. Unit Shift happened in 43.33% of the translated sentences most probably because translations of English vocabulary-learning books tend to be explanatory and clear. 69.52% of the shifts were Intra-system Shifts mainly due to the fact that the translators tried to avoid foreign structures that sound weird to Persian speakers. </em></p> Mohammad Aghai, Dr. Mokhtarnia Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/840 Translation Theory and Ideology: A Memetics Perspective https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/839 <p>Memetics as the cultural counterpart to genetics has provided us with new tools to study the transference and sharing of ideas within or across human communities. The present article is an attempt at working memetics into translation theory analysis. To this aim, the present paper explored some of the outstanding ideas from philosophers and translation theorists including George Steiner, Franz Rosenzweig, Paul Ricoeur, and Walter Benjamin in search of some shared strands of ideas forming the core of parts of theorization on translation. Scrutinizing some of the writings of these thinkers, either in the form of prefaces to their own translations or essays on translation, vividly revealed the presence of some basic trends such as sexualizing, or more exactly, effeminizing translation act, and attributing a hypothetical messianic mission to translation. On this basis, a tentative list of translational memes featuring <em>femimeme</em> and <em>messianic meme</em> was suggested. Seeing such common trends as translational memes follows that these trends are capable of transference and replication, a fact that was validated by reference to their vast spatio-temporal and cultural spread, and their common source of origin. The striking similarities found between such translational memes and Jewish mysticism showed that they could be of Kabalistic provenance. The findings indicated that working memetics into translation theory analysis is a worthwhile endeavor.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> مصطفی کمیلی Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/839 رایانش ابری در ترجمه: موردپژوهشی ارائه¬دهندگان خدمات زبانی در ایران https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/836 <p>این مقاله پس از معرفی و توصیف سیستم­های سنتی ثبت سفارش ترجمه در ایران و سیستم ترکیبی ابری مدیریت ترجمه، ابتدا رایج­ترین نوع خدمات ترجمه در ایران را بررسی می­کند و سپس با توجه به ضرورت خدمات، به بررسی میزان استفاده از سیستم­های ترکیبی ابری در شرکت­های ترجمه می­پردازد و پیشنهاد می­کند این سیستم­ها به جای سیستم­های سنتی یا مبتنی بر مدل خطی ترجمه در شرکت­های ترجمه ایران مورد استفاده قرار گیرند. یافته­های این مقاله نشان می­دهد که ترجمه تخصصی و پس از آن محلی­سازی رایج­ترین نوع سرویس مورد تقاضای کاربران ایرانی است. همچنین، نتایج نشان می­دهند که تقریبا هیچ یک از شرکت­های ترجمه ایرانی از سیستم ترکیبی ابری توصیف­شده در پژوهش حاضر استفاده نمی­کنند..</p> maryam poorgalavi Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/836 Challenges of machine-to-machine translation from Persian to Arabic and its pathology https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/831 <p>&nbsp;Despite the rapid pace of machine translation and the all-round development of new technologies, there are still many shortcomings and shortcomings in this area. The present study seeks to provide a descriptive-analytical approach to the challenging features and aspects of translating Persian into Arabic by machine translators, but this does not mean rejecting or opposing the types of machines and programs for this. It is not meant to be designed and built, or it is not impossible, because this technology, along with the drawbacks and problems that we may face in translation, also has its advantages, including the ability to act quickly and save time and money. Cited. This study aims to take a step towards improving these machine-to-machine translation from Persian to Arabic by examining the case of these deficiencies and challenges, without questioning machine translation, by providing solutions to address these deficiencies and challenges. To do this, four of the most popular and powerful translation sites have been selected and reviewed. Then a solution is provided for each of the failures. The purpose of analyzing these challenges is to identify and address these deficiencies in order to address them. The findings of the present study indicate that machine translation currently cannot replace human translation in terms of accuracy and efficiency, because the ability to understand text texture and adapt words quickly to text, style and context, extract terminological and non-primary meanings and identify factors. Roughness does not affect the meaning of texts.</p> Dr, Mr Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/831 Charactonyms in Accredited Persian Translation of Classic Religious English Literature https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/830 <p>The article deals with charactonyms in <em>accredited Persian translation of classic religious English literature </em>and features charactonyms in the works of John Bunyan (1628 -1688) and Lew Wallace (1827 - 1905). Charactonyms are the names suggesting the characteristics of the bearers. According to Hatch (1992), literary characters play an important role and they can affect the macrostructure of a novel. The material has been borrowed from <em>The </em><em>Pilgrim's</em><em> Progress</em> written by Bunyan (1678), published by Reformation Press in 1999 and the established equivalents of two Persian translations, <em>Siyahat-i Masihi</em> (‘سیاحت مسیحی’) by J. L. Potter (1926) and <em>Seir-o Solouk-i Za’ir</em> (‘سیر و سلوک زائر’) by Golnaz Hamedi (2002) and from<em> Ben-Hur: A Tale of </em><em>the Christ</em> written by Wallace (1880), published by Global Grey in 2018 and the established equivalents of two Persian translations, <em>Ben-Hoor</em> (‘بن هور’) by Mohammad Nowruzi (1951) and <em>Ben-Hoor</em> <em>ya</em> <em>Dastan-i Isa</em> (‘بن هور یا داستان عیسی’) by Esmail Shaygan (1956). Kalashnikov’s (2011) two types of charactonyms: veiled charactonyms and charactonyms personalia and Kalashnikov’s (2006) classification of translation equivalents are employed to compare the SL charactonyms and the TL equivalents at Hatch’s (1992) macro level analysis to reveal whether the established Persian equivalents convey the traits of the SL charactonyms and/or affect the macrostructure of the novel(s).</p> Abdolreza Rostami Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/830 Hybridity in Translation Studies from Latour’s Perspective https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/827 <p>Several scholars have investigated the relationships between translation studies and hybridity. They have mostly directed the research path to cultural rather than sociological standpoint. The present study aimed to explore the concept of hybridity from one of the known scholars of sociological studies. Latour’s perspective can be applied to translation studies. He referred to “the proliferation of hybrid” in the world (1993, p. 1). He considered hybrid networks between human and non-human elements. Two concepts that helped him to improve this assumption were “actor” and “network”. Although they are so comprehensive, this study concerned a limited version of them. To investigate the hybrid networks of the actors, a Persian authored-compiled book was selected. At first, it was studied to find out whether it was a translation or not. Then, the main sources were identified. At last, the role of each actor was determined. These actors are the background of each author (the popularity, areas of interest, publications, and levels of education), the description of the book (general theme, citation of the main sources in textual and paratextual elements, publisher, the publisher’s areas of interest), and the samples of the text with their original sources. Overall, investigating the hybrid networks indicated that although the book was assumed to be an authored one, it had been translated from an English source, highlighting the hybridity and the blurred borders between so-called original sources and translated texts.</p> Mehrnaz Poostforoush, Hussein Mollanazar Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/827 English Publishers’ Notes as Conflict Management Tools in Translation Contexts https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/826 <p>This paper aims to investigate the role of publishers’ notes in managing conflicts in translation contexts. It mainly concerns&nbsp;the strategies adopted to deal with conflict cases, and detects the most and least frequent strategies. The data collected for the purpose of this study comes from the publishers’ notes of Persian translations of a number of books written on the Iran-Iraq war, published by Marz-o-Boom Publication in Iran. Salama-Carr’s (2007), and Webne-Behrman’s (1998) definitions of conflict were used, and Thomas-Kilmann’s (1974) typology of conflict management strategies served as theoretical framework. The findings of this research suggest that a publishers’ note is a significant conflict management tool that functions outside the immediate text. Almost all the matters discussed in the notes studied dealt with the Iran-Iraq war. A combination of various conflict management strategies was used in the notes. In neither of the notes, the strategy of avoidance or accommodation was adopted. Conflict was almost always addressed. It seems that the publishers’ aim has not been satisfying the Other’s concerns by giving in, sacrificing, accepting, or yielding to the Other’s viewpoints. Completion and collaboration strategies were highly used in the notes and ranked first. Apparently, the publishers’ intention has been collaboration to broaden the readers’ understanding of the Iran-Iraq war. However, eventually such collaboration has happened in an extremely competitive atmosphere. The publishers have highly insisted on their positions and stood up for what they have considered right.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr. Hussein Mollanazar, Marzieh Maddahi Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/826 Historiography of Resistance Literature Translation in the Sacred Defense Era in Iran https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/825 <p>The present study introduces two bibliographies. The first represents Persian translations of English novels of resistance and the second displays Persian translations of English novels of war resistance from 1359 to 1367. The present authors used both definitions of resistance literature by Harlow (1987) and DeShazer (1994) to link the issues of race discrimination, class conflict, war, colonialism and post colonialism and totalitarianism to resistance literature. After collecting data from Dewey 813-814 and Dewey 823-824 at http://www.ketab.ir/, the synopses or reviews of the novels in the corpus, as well as the introductions by their translators were studied in order to select and list translations of resistance novels. Then, their frequencies in relation to the socio- historical conditions of Iran during the 8 years of the Iran-Iraq War, known in the national discourse as “the Sacred Defense era” based on the methods in translation history by Pym (2014) were examined. The findings revealed that out of the eight hundred and sixty seven translations of English novels in the Sacred Defense era, one hundred and sixty six translations, equal to 19% of all the translations, were in the field of resistance literature. Based on the results, the translation of novels in the field of resistance literature does not seem to be related, at least directly, to the war the Iranian society was experiencing at the time.</p> Leila Alinoori, Farzaneh Farahzad Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/825 Collocational Clashes within Linguistic Hybridity https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/824 <p>This study aimed at finding the reasons of deviations from typical Persian collocations among Abhari Persian speakers. In this direction, categories of collocations and collocational clashes, as well linguistic hybridity were explored. First, Abhara Turkish sentences which were supposed to have the most clashes in the process of translating into Persian were compiled along with their Abhari Persian equivalents. After checking with an educated Persian native speaker, 41 sentences were chosen as collocational clashes in the Standard Persian. Each one of these sentences was categorized according to the taxonomy proposed by Benson (1985). In the next step, these Turkish sentences were put in the form of a printed questionnaire with 41 items and distributed among Abhari participants. All the participants (217 members) were born in Abhar and lived there. They were native speakers of Abhari Turkish and normally spoke in that dialect. They were asked to write the same Persian equivalents they use for each Turkish sentence. After collecting the questionnaires, the Persian equivalents of each Turkish sentence were categorized in order to check their similarity to and difference from typical Persian and determine the factors involved in these clashes and interferences. In this phase, the collectedm data were analyzed based on Beekman and Callow&rsquo;s (1974) model of causes of collocational clashes. The most frequent patterns of collocational clashes belonged to Object +Verb pattern, and the least one belonged to Subject + Verb pattern. The most important causes of these clashes were word-for-word translation by keeping the primary meaning of words and transferring the structure of mother tongue (Turkish) into Persian, non-observance of collocational possibilities in Persian, and over-translation.</p> Roghayeh Asgari Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/824 Sun, 18 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0330 An Appraisal Analysis of Multinational Advertisements for Beauty Products in the Context of Iran https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/822 <p>This article examines the applicability of Martin and White’s (2005) system of ‘appraisal’ to the analysis of multinational beauty advertisements in the context of Iran. It investigates the linguistic choices made by the beauty advertisers that use English for conducting international business as well as the choices made by Iranian translators in translating such ads from English into Persian. The comparison between the two is made in an attempt to explore the potential for appraisal resources as a means of determining translators positioning and subjective evaluation. The advertisements were sourced from the products’ promotional brochures freely available at beauty supply stores in Iran. The analyzed data reveal minor shifts in translations of the resources of attitude that alter the ideological position of the translated advertisements. The results demonstrate that appraisal theory could be an appropriate approach for detecting evaluative orientations in advertising discourse as well as inserted values in translation.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ms., mansoor tavakoli, Dr Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/822 بررسی وتحلیل پاره‌گفتار‌های "لیت" در قرآن کریم براساس نظریه‌های کنش‌گفتار وانفصال گفتمانی https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/821 <p>For understanding the meaning behind sentences and a deep knowledge of a text, attention to texture of speech and speech action as one of the means of understanding is necessary. <br>The Holy Quran is the miracle of the Prophet of Islam and the book of life that is from God <br>It was revealed to humanity as the end of the heavenly books. This study analyzes Quran’s verses with the help of the philosophy of language and to study speech action and the deeper meaning behind the word &lt;&lt;lait&gt;&gt; in holy Quran based on astin? speech action and the 5 serl ? speech patterns&nbsp; and germes? Speech separation to understand and recognize speech connection in these verses. The method of this study is analyzing the text based on analyzing and describing and matching . result of this study shows that these words based on the surrounding text and speech separation are tools of action and focuses the readers attention toward the true massage of the text with different speech actions so that these verses indirectly transfer from an impossible dream to an effective factor.</p> masumehpouya pouya Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/821 A Study of Translation’s Role in Discursive Changes of Marriage in Iran in Pre- and Post-Constitutional Movement: A Case Study https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/818 <p>Applying Foucauldian notion of discourse, this paper explores translation’s contribution to the discursive transformation of the concept of “marriage”in pre- and post- Iranian Constitutional Movement. Marriage here is analyzed as one of the concepts of women’s discourse. For this purpose, translation of a novel, <em>La Reine Margot,</em>was selected. To explore the issue, first, statements pertaining to the discursive concept of marriage in premodern and modern discourses on women were extracted from three discursive-historical gender studies: Najmabadi&nbsp;(2005), Paidar&nbsp;(1995), and Afary (2009). Then, the statements pertaining to the concept of marriage were extracted from the translation and compared to the statements of premodern discourse as stated in the three volumes above. The similarities and disparities between them were discerned. Next, to investigate the possible role of translation in reconfiguring marriage in the modern discourse, these statements were compared to the statements of modern discourse. Results show that not only does marriage, as portrayed in the translation, differ considerably from the same concept in the premodern discourse, but also it demonstrates considerable correspondence with the modern discourse in the era of constitution, which became dominant almost a decade after the publication of the translation. Such correspondence is believed to indicate the discursive role and contribution of translation in transforming and reconfiguring the discursive concept of marriage in the receiving society.</p> Hajar Mohamadnia Dizaji, Dr. Farzaneh Farahzad Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/818 Spainsh Translation of synonyms in Gulistan of Sa’di https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/816 <p class="western"><span style="font-family: Fujiyama2, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Gulistan of Sa’di has been acclaimed in many countries of the world with its worldwide fame and all or part of it has been translated into many languages. In this article the Spanish translation of Gulistan has been introduced and studied. Gulistan from the point of view of eloquence and rhetoric is such that it can be studied from various structural and content aspects, and naturally its translations have also many capabilities to study and research about. In this article, in addition to an overview of the Spanish translation of Gulistan, which was done by Joaquin Rodriguez Vargas; according to Christopher Waddington's Model C, Comparative study of different general translation evaluation methods, this translation has been evaluated. The main focus of this evaluation is to assess the translation quality of synonyms. For this reason sentences with this linguistic feature have been extracted from Gulistan and discussed in multiple divisions of translation quality. Studying the synonyms according to the Waddington table showed that the semantic nuances between the synonyms were translated accurately and well and this reveals translator's mastery in Persian language. Some synonyms have also been translated into sentences or explanatory phrases. In the end, some mistranslations are mentioned in this work.</span></span></p> Soudabeh Bashizadeh, Zohreh Allahdadi Dastjerdi Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/816 Fri, 11 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0430 Resistance Literature in Persian Translation from 1357 to 1384 https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/815 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> <p>The Present study is a short report on the doctoral dissertation about all translations of English novels in resistance literature translated from 1357 to 1384 In Iran. The present authors generalized the definitions of resistance literature by Harlow (1987) and DeShazer (1994) into identification and categorization of resistance literature, especially resistance novels. therefore, after collecting data from Dewey 813-814 and Dewey 823-824 at http://www.ketab.ir/ which include all translations of novels translated from English and American languages into Persian, the researchers read the synopses or reviews of the novels as well as the introductions by the translators of all the corpus of the study in order to select translations of resistance novels. Then, based on their overall themes, the selected translations were categorized into five categories, war, race discrimination, colonialism and post colonialism, class and finally totalitarianism resistance literature. The total numbers of each category were analyzed in the four administrations, Bani Sadr, Ayatollah Khamenei, Rafsanjani and finally, Khatami administration. Moreover, their propagation in relation to the socio-historical situation of the country in each year were examined separately. Finally, their effects on the Persian literary polysystem at that time span were analyzed as well. The findings revealed that out of 9587 translations of English novels in a 28- year period after the Islamic Revolution only 599 translations of 498 English novels, equaled to 6.248% of all the translations were among resistance literature which had an insignificant part in the literary polysystem of Iran at that time span.</p> Leila Alinoori, Farzaneh Farahzad Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/815 The Translatability and untranslatability of poetry: A case study of two sonnets by Hafiz https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/813 <p>The translatability and non-translatability of poetry is a contentious issue among translators and experts of translation and literature, which has been discussed for a long time and is still considered one of the most challenging poetic topics. In translating, both prose and poetry, there are many obstacles and problems for translator, which are more prominent in the translation of poetic works. In this article, we are going to list these problems. In fact, the purpose of this article is to examine the translatability or untranslatability of poetry through the analysis of two sonnets by Hafiz. In this regard, we have tried to use the obstacles that Georges Mounin, one of the defenders of the concept of untranslatability, mentions in his book entitled "Les belles infidèles" about translation, stating the reasons for untranslatability and then examining the sonnets of Hafiz. The way this work is done is analytical. To this end, he has studied these two sonnets and translated them into French to determine which elements of the poems of this great Iranian poet have been translated or which elements are ignored and which the translator is unable to convey.<br><br>Keywords: translatability, untranslatability, poetic translation, Hafiz, sonnet</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Mehran Zendehboudi Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/813 Renarration of the Verbal and Nonverbal Sites in the Multimodal Narrative https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/812 <p>With the many advances in media communication that have revolutionalized our ways of constructing meaning over the last decades, the existing approaches towards audiovisual translation that consider it as a kind of verbal transfer from one language to another seem to work to a point and hence leave a great gap as to what exactly is entailed in audiovisual texts that participate in constructing reality in the target language. The present study drawing on Ghomi and Farahzad&rsquo;s (2020) model of renarration in audiovisual translation explores the renarration of the verbal and nonverbal sites in the multimodal narrative with a focus on dubbed animations broadcast from the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting. To this end, the study applied Multimodal Narrative Analysis introduced by Ghomi and Farahzad (2020) as the research methodology to see which sites are tampered with in the process of constructing reality in the IRIB&rsquo;s narrative. The results of the study suggested that the IRIB exploits all narrative sites in the process of multimodal renarration and transcends the mere translation of written words, bringing into the equation other multimodal elements such as image and vocal behavior that make up a multimodal product. It further revealed that nonverbal sites were reframed more than verbal sites in order to accentuate, undermine or modify certain narratives in the target language.</p> Parina Ghomi, Farzaneh Farahzad Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/812 Sun, 18 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0330 Manipulation in Conference Simultaneous Interpreting https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/811 <p>This study investigated the phenomenon of manipulation in conference simultaneous interpreting. The corpus of this research comprised of randomly selected speeches in various conferences held in Iran including (OGC) The Oil &amp; Gas Conference in 2005, (IPF) Iran Petrochemical Forum conference in 2011, (IGEC) Iran Gas Export Conference in 2004, and (MEGAS) Mega Oil &amp; gas projects conference. Particular factors which influence interpreting in the simultaneous mode such as time limits, memory restrictions, speed of speech, or interpreter’s lack of knowledge about the topic of speech and so on, resulted in manifestations of manipulative strategies including cases of substitution, deletion, and addition and multiplied manifestations of these strategies in sentence, as the unit of analysis in this research, which seemingly were not consciously adopted.</p> Mandana Noori Ghale Naseri, Farzaneh Farahzad Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/811 Cognitive Phraseological Variations in Terminology of Public International Law and Its Application in Translation into Farsi https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/809 <p>For the past twenty years, “phraseology” has been considered a very important topic of study for various specialized languages. The linguistic view that used to see phraseology such as “idiom researches and lexicography classifying various kinds of idiomatic expressions” has changed meaningfully. Nowadays, thanks to these changes, the new view is focused on identifying and classifying phraseology as well as applying them to research in theory. That is why we would do well to try to define new horizons of phraseology in different specialized languages. The language of interest here is the prescriptive and descriptive language of international law instruments. We should consider this language as the normative language of judges, legislators, courts and international lawyers. These practitioners – who use specific types of phraseology and stable linguistic structures –should perhaps adhere to the use of a professional language that conforms to recognized standards of normative rules. This paper, therefore, tries to define the main relations between phraseology studies and IL Latin expressions and their systematic-semantic equivalences in languages with different roots like Farsi.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> seyed mohammad hossein mirzadeh Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/809 Critical Translation and ESP Textbooks Evaluation: The Case of Extra-Linguistic Sub-Competence Needs in Legal and Journalistic Sources https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/808 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The present study attempted to evaluate course books to investigate whether they meet students’ needs. It also aimed at comparing legal and journalistic back ground knowledge of two groups, undergraduate translation students and legal and journalism students. To address the issues, data were collected from 8 most popular legal and journalism translation books as well as 8 legal and journalism ESP books. Evaluation of different specialized sources in ESP program, in spite of ancient program objectives, shows that it cannot train translator! Most of law and journalism field graduates have no background of translation knowledge and translation students have not enough knowledge of specialized fields or at least do not learn how to find necessary information. Besides basic translation knowledge, ESP students need extra-linguistic knowledge to understand specialized texts. As different studies of PACTE group declare, specialized translation includes knowledge of the world as well as knowledge of the field, and knowledge of translation.</p> Hussein Mollanazar, Shirin Salimi Beni Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/808 Cognitive Phraseological Variations in Terminology of Public International Law and Its Application in Translation into Farsi https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/805 <p>For the past twenty years, “phraseology” has been considered a very important topic of study for various specialized languages. The linguistic view that used to see phraseology such as “idiom researches and lexicography classifying various kinds of idiomatic expressions” has changed meaningfully. Nowadays, thanks to these changes, the new view is focused on identifying and classifying phraseology as well as applying them to research in theory. That is why we would do well to try to define new horizons of phraseology in different specialized languages. The language of interest here is the prescriptive and descriptive language of international law instruments. We should consider this language as the normative language of judges, legislators, courts and international lawyers. These practitioners – who use specific types of phraseology and stable linguistic structures –should perhaps adhere to the use of a professional language that conforms to recognized standards of normative rules. This paper, therefore, tries to define the main relations between phraseology studies and IL Latin expressions and their systematic-semantic equivalences in languages with different roots like Farsi.</p> seyed mohammad hossein mirzadeh Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/805 Extended Metaphor in the Glorious Qur'an Through Translation https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/804 <p>The study aimed to investigate procedures employed in the translation of extended metaphors (EMs) as an under-researched structural feature in Qur&rsquo;anic Arabic-English translation. To this end, Qur&rsquo;anic verses illustrating the point were sampled and analyzed to discover the most and least applied procedures based on Newmark&rsquo;s (1988) metaphor translation procedures. Accordingly, three Qur&rsquo;an translations were analyzed in an attempt to determine the EMs and their figurative/intended meanings. To do so, the researchers investigated the procedures in 50 cases comprising EMs. This study demonstrated that EMs in the <em>Qur&rsquo;an</em>, as structural features, posed challenges to the translators. The analysis revealed that the translators demanded great efforts to render EMs. Furthermore, not all the translations were fully communicative concerning intended meanings. The most frequent procedure for EM translation was &lsquo;reproducing same images in the TL literally&rsquo; (75.4%) while the least frequent one was &lsquo;translation of metaphor/simile by simile plus sense&rsquo; (0.5%). Confronted by a gap in the model, the researchers appended an additional procedure to the model&rsquo;s existing categories, namely &lsquo;explicating a part of metaphor/simile&rsquo;, observing that the original model cannot cover some metaphorical occurrences addressed in a miraculous discourse, namely the Word of Allah, Jalla Jalaaluh.</p> Mahboubeh Movahhedian, Mohammad Yazdani Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/804 Tue, 20 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0330 Translation and Cultural Memory in Roald Dahl’s Books of Childhood https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/803 <p>Even though the translation scholars talk of the intersection of the translation and memory they do not highlight the process of translation in their works (Bodozki 2007; Simon 2011; and Brownlie 2016). To focus on the influence of the process of translation this paper is to test Astrid Erll&rsquo;s cultural memory model in four children&rsquo;s books of Roald Dahl&rsquo;s translated into Persian by four translators in three different publishing houses in order to analyze how the inter-relation of social, mental and material dimensions could (re) construct the cultural memory of a generation. For the investigation of the three dimensions George Kelly&rsquo;s Repertory Grid Technique (RepGrid) as well as Peeter Torop&rsquo;s cultural translatability parameters of language, text and work are used as an instrument. From the elicitation of the grids and the textual analysis of the data the paper finds out the iteration of the readers&rsquo; schemata, the translators&rsquo; retranslations and publishers&rsquo; republications as well as the large amount of translated texts happening through the process of translation have turned Dahl and his four children&rsquo;s fantasy fictions into a symbol and symbolic texts and these symbolic texts have solidified the cultural memory of generations about him and his children&rsquo;s books.</p> Bahar Eshraq, Hussein Mollanazar Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/803 Sun, 18 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0330 A Pragmatic Analysis of the Functions of Elaborative and Contrastive Discourse Markers in Translation Criticism https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/802 <p>This explorative study investigates the pragmatic functions of elaborative and contrastive discourse markers from a metadiscursive perspective. The metadiscursive investigations have revealed the widespread difference between propositional meaning and various flexible pragmatic behaviors of discourse markers results in ambiguity in human communication. The creative, complex, multi-layered context of discourse structure is the source of this flexible pragmatic behavior. This, in turn, results in pragmaticalization of discourse markers in social contexts. During this process, the propositional meaning of discourse markers is replaced with novel interactive meanings and functions in discourse. The exploration of pragmaticalzation system gives rise to an effective resource of knowledge, expertise, and skill in education, research, and learning in our scientific, educational, and administrative environments. Applying Fraser (2006) and Brinton (1996) models in the analysis of randomly sampled translation criticisms during three decades, this descriptive and qualitative study reveales that all examples of elaborative and contrastive discourse markers experienced the process of pragmaticalization. Consequently, a six- plane functional, pragmatic, and interactive, model for monitoring discourse structure in translation criticism genre was explored on the basis of flexible contextual variables. Moreover, the process of pragmaticalization was observed in three discoursal domains of ideation, action, and information. Therefore, the pragmatic functions of these meta-discursive elements are under the influence of the context resulting in a lot of complicated, novel, imaginative, and productive inferences.</p> Ali Mohammad Mohammadi Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/802 Sun, 18 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0330 Validating a CIPP-based Inventory to Evaluate Undergraduate-Level Technical English Translation Courses https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/800 <p>One of the most important factors influencing a valid evaluation is the existence of an appropriate instrument that can accurately evaluate a given program. The purpose of this study was to design a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate BA-level English translation program in Iran. This study was conducted in 2019 and 2020 at different English language faculties in Iran offering BA programs of English translation for more than 10 years. For the purpose of the study, having consulted the existing sources on Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP) evaluation model, a researcher-made inventory was developed. The next stage included assessing the validity of the instrument through expert judgment and measuring its content validity index. Finally, the reliability of the questionnaire, was estimated by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficient and Guttmann's split-half coefficient. The final edition of the questionnaire was then distributed among 147 junior and senior undergraduate students of English translation in six different faculties. According to the results. The observed Cronbach's alpha for the instrument was .89 and the observed Guttman's split-half coefficient was .78.in addition, confirmatory factor analysis was done to indorse the construct validity of the inventory. Accordingly, it was concluded that the inventory enjoys desirable validity and reliability and thus, can be used for evaluating different technical translation courses.</p> Saeed Ranjbar, Ramin Rahimy Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/800 Sun, 18 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0330 رایانش ابری در ترجمه: موردپژوهشی ارائه دهندگان خدمات زبانی در ایران https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/798 <p>رایانش ابری نوعی رایانش مبتنی بر اینترنت است که بر کسب و کارهای مختلف تخصصی به خصوص ترجمه، تاثیر قابل ­ملاحظه ­ای گذاشته است. علیرغم پژوهش ­های مختلفی که در این زمینه در دنیا انجام شده، هیچ­گونه مطالعه ­ای تاکنون بر روی این سیستم­ ها در ایران صورت نگرفته است. بنابراین، این مقاله با معرفی و توصیف سیستم­ های ابری مدیریت ترجمه، به بررسی سیستم ­های ثبت سفارش ترجمه در ایران، میزان استفاده از سیستم­ های ابری در ترجمه و نیز مزایای استفاده از آنها می­ پردازد و پیشنهاد می­ کند این سیستم ­ها به جای سیستم ­های مبتنی بر مدل خطی ترجمه در شرکت­ های ترجمه ایران مورد استفاده قرار گیرند. یافته­ های این مقاله نشان می­ دهد که اکثر ارائه­دهندگان خدمات زبانی در ایران از وجود سیستم­ های خودکار ترجمه به طور عام، و سیستم­ های ابری به طور خاص، آگاه نیستند یا درباره استفاده از آنها تردید دارند. این در حالی است که سیستم ابری را می ­توان به طور موثری به خصوص در پروژه ­های مشارکتی ترجمه استفاده کرد و با استفاده از آن هزینه خدمات ترجمه و زمان انجام پروژه ها را کاهش داد و به این ترتیب، کیفیت بالای ترجمه را نیز تضمین کرد.</p> maryam poorgalavi Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/798 Self-translations of Avicenna into Persian https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/795 <p>Avicenna is very well known for his innovative compositions throughout the world. But he had some innovative self-translations into Persian worthy to be analyzed as facts of target language and culture. The present paper is a detailed look at the Persian self-translations of Avicenna. He lived in the late 4<sup>th</sup> and early 5<sup>th</sup> centuries AH (10<sup>th</sup> and 11<sup>th</sup> AD) in which Arabic was the well-established language of science and the Lingua Franca in the Islamic world. Modern Persian, however, was on the verge of prominent evolutions. Persian prose or Dari was on the brink of establishment as the language of writing. As a result, composition of scientific books in Persian was against the cultural norm of the age and a form of resistance. In such an environment, Avicenna self-translated two of his own Arabic books at the request of a patron. In the present study, it has been depicted that his self-translations have had a significant but neglected role in scientific writings in Modern Persian especially in the field of philosophy. Analysis of self-translations of Avicenna into Persian from a synchronic and diachronic point of view shows that his self-translations have had not only impacts at his own age but also his terminology and self-translations have had long-term effects on Persian language prose. His Persian self-translation was the corner stone of Philosophical texts and terminology in Modern Persian.</p> Mohammadreza Hosseini, Farzaneh Farahzad Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/795 Fri, 11 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0430 مقایسة کیفیت ترجمة اخبار سياسي انگلیسی به فارسی توسط مترجم گوگل و اِیس https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/793 <p>The increasing use of machine translation in the recent decades has necessitated the assessment of its quality to both evaluate the importance of machine translation performance and to upgrade its efficiency. To achieve this goal, the current study examined the quality of Google Translate and ACE Translator in translating political English web pages into Persian. Researchers randomly selected 20 paragraphs including 70 sentences and 1,523 words from CNN news on the internet. Two professional translators rated the quality of machine translations made by two machines based on Waddington’s (2001) model. Results indicated that translations of Google Translate and Ace Translator received the same score in their translation quality. These two machine translators produce translations full of semantic errors and can only yield a general meaning of the text and the extraction of exact meaning and the production of suitable equivalents still relies on utilizing human translators. The main problem is that these two translators mostly use the first meaning of the word which is the most frequent meaning usually leading to literal translation. These two machine translators cannot recognize the exact discoursal and pragmatic features that shape the meaning of a text. This research determined how identifying errors in machine translations can help as a starting point for assessing the quality of machine translation and improving its output.</p> Abdullah Sarani Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/793 The Role of Ideology in Dubbing Multimedia Products https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/788 <p>The present article intends to investigate the impact of target dominant ideology and the strategies that translators apply in the process of dubbing. To this end, fifty episodes of an American TV series entitled "The House of Cards", which had been dubbed into Persian and shown on the IRIB <em>Namayesh</em> channel, were analyzed. All the dialogues were examined contrastively and their translation strategies were categorized based on Davies' (2003) translation strategies. Then, their intercultural factors were studied by using the Wang and Shen's (1999) classification. The results revealed that <em>Transformation</em> has been the most frequently (33%) used strategy. Also, ethical interferences and political influences were two influential cultural factors in the process of dubbing this series. The current study shows that dubbed movies are strictly monitored due to political, socio-cultural, ideological, and religious considerations.</p> جواد فقیه پرور Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/788 An Analysis into Metalanguage of English Morphosyntax in English-Persian Translation Process https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/784 <p>This study aimed to investigate the contribution of English-Persian translation students' metalinguistic knowledge of English to their translation performance. To that end, a sequential mixed-method research design (i.e., QUAN &rarr; QUAL) was employed. For this purpose, 39 senior students that were majoring in English translation were selected through convenience sampling. In the quantitative phase, a metalinguistic knowledge test (MLKT) and a translation test (TT) were administered to the participants in order to measure their metalanguage of English and English-Persian translation performance, respectively. Then, the participants were divided into two groups based on the median (i.e., high-metalanguage and low-metalanguage). Finally, for the purpose of confirming the quantitative results, the two groups were asked to verbalize their thoughts about the translation work, while translating twenty-five English sentences into Persian. The independent-samples t-test indicated that there was a significant difference between the high- and low-metalanguage groups in TT performance. However, the results of four regression analyses showed that MLKT could not predict any variance of TT. Finally, the analysis of TAP data manifested the lack of explicit knowledge of English morphosyntax on the part of both high- and low-metalanguage groups. The findings of this study are discussed and implications are offered for translation trainers and researchers.</p> Seyyed Amir Hossein Sarkeshikian, Farid Parvaneh, Zeinab Beyranvand Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/784 Sun, 18 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0330 The Relationship between Total MI Score and Consecutive Interpreting Performance in Iranian Male and Female Trainee Interpreters https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/785 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This empirical descriptive study aims at finding a relationship between Iranian trainee interpreters' total MI (Multiple Intelligences) score and gender and their consecutive interpreting performance. The researcher has always encountered superiority of female trainees in consecutive interpreting classes and wanted to find out if there exists any relationship between the trainees' gender and their consecutive interpreting performance. And as learning styles differ in individuals due to the difference in their intelligences, an MI test is run to measure their total score in MI. First a standard test of General English (IELTS) was administered to homogenize the trainees. 113 participants who were all undergraduate students of English Translation took part in this study. At last 109 of them were chosen for the study. The Pearson correlation shows a significant correlation between total MI score in female interpreter trainees and consecutive interpreting performance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Zahra Golshahi, Gholamreza Tajvidi Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/785 Proper Nouns in Translation from English into Persian: A Case Study of Classic English Novels https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/783 <p>Proper nouns play an important role, particularly in literary texts, so their translation requires careful attention by literary translators. The focus of the present paper is on the translation strategies applied to render proper nouns in classic novels translated from English into Persian. For this purpose, Vermes’ (2001) translational model was adopted for identifying the translation strategies and Brédart et al.’s (1996) model was used to identify the types of proper nouns. Five classic English novels and one of the best-selling Persian translations of each were selected to be analyzed in this study. The results indicated that <em>transference</em> was the most frequently applied strategy followed by <em>substitution</em>. <em>Modification</em> came next, while <em>translation</em> was the least frequently used strategy based on Vermes’ (2001) model. The results also revealed that among the various categories of proper nouns identified in the novels under study, personal names and geographical names were mostly <em>transferred</em> by Persian translators.</p> Roya Ebadi Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/783 A Study of Persian Translations of Literary Features in Kahlil Gibran’s ‘The Prophet’: (Skopos Theory Framework) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/782 <p>The primary goal of the current study was to approach the translation of literary features including metaphors and similes in the Persian translations of <em>‘The Prophet’</em> by Kahlil Gibran from Skopos theory lens. To do so, contrastive content analysis of both SL and TL versions of the Book in terms of the target features and Reiss and Vermeer’s (2014) model of Skopos theory of rules of skopos, coherence, and fidelity were followed. Data tabulation and analysis were followed by frequency analysis. The results revealed that in the translation of similes and metaphors from <em>‘The Prophet’</em> into Persian, Elahi Ghomsheie has followed both Skopos and coherent rules more than Daryabandari, however, in terms of fidelity Drayabandari takes priority over Elahi Ghomsheie, which ultimately proves Elahi Ghomsheie as a more successful translator than Daryabandari in total. These findings bear certain massages: the target reader and core message, or in other words, Nord’s “the end justifies the means” is of significance in translations process, and translation strategy selection is a function of both genre type and translator’s professionalism and background expertise.&nbsp;</p> Gholam-Reza Abbasian Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/782 Contribution of Translation to Promotion of and Resistance against the Second Pahlavi’s Narrative of Modernization regarding Women https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/781 <p>The present study aimed at exploring the contribution of translation to promotion of and resistance against the Second Pahlavi&rsquo;s narrative of modernization regarding women. Baker&rsquo;s socio-narrative theory (2006) was used as the framework of the study and two English novels, <em>The Wayward Bus, </em>and<em> Bleak House,</em> were selected to be compared with their Persian translations which were published in Iran during a period of five years after the launch of the White Revolution in 1963 when the narrative of modernization was introduced officially. Results showed that selective appropriation and repositioning of participants were used to reframe the Persian translation of <em>The Wayward Bus</em> which was published in 1965. The same reframing strategies along with temporal framing were used to reframe the Persian translation of <em>Bleak House</em> which was published in 1967. Reframed narratives of both translations contributed to the promotion of the narrative of tradition while resisting the Second Pahlavi&rsquo;s narrative of modernization. Social and political activities of women were downgraded, their families&rsquo; dissatisfaction with them was emphasized, and the society was portrayed not to be safe for women, who were considered, in reframed narratives, as individuals who had to be watched all the time.</p> Mahboubeh Khalili, Hussein Mollanazar Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/781 Fri, 11 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0430 کاربردی¬شدگی معنی A Pragmatic Analysis of the Functions of Elaborative and Contrastive Discourse Markers in Translation Criticism: https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/779 <p><strong>This explorative study investigated the pragmatic functions of elaborative and contrastive discourse markers from a metadiscursive perspective. The metadiscursive investigations have revealed that the widespread difference between propositional meaning and various flexible pragmatic behaviors of discourse markers results in ambiguity in human communication. The creative, complex, multi-layered context of discourse structure is the source of this flexible pragmatic behavior. This, in turn, results in pragmaticalization of discourse markers in social contexts. During this process, the propositional meaning of discourse markers is replaced with novel interactive meanings and functions in discourse.&nbsp; The exploration of pragmaticalzation system would give rise to an effective resource of knowledge, expertise, and skill in education, research, and learning in our scientific, educational, and administrative environments. Applying Fraser (2006) and Brinton (1996) models in the analysis of randomly sampled translation criticisms during three decades, this descriptive and qualitative study revealed that all examples of elaborative and contrastive discourse markers experienced the process of pragmaticalization. Consequently, a six plane functional, pragmatic, and interactive, model for monitoring discourse structure in translation criticism genre was explored on the basis of flexible contextual variables. Moreover, this process of pragmaticalization was observed in three discoursal domains of ideation, action, and information. Therefore, the pragmatic functions of these meta-discursive elements is under the influence of the context resulting in a lot of complicated, novel, imaginative, and productive inferences. </strong></p> Ali Mohammad Mohammadi Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/779 A Pragmatic Analysis of the Functions of Elaborative and Contrastive Discourse Markers in Translation Criticism: https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/778 <p><strong>This explorative study investigated the pragmatic functions of elaborative and contrastive discourse markers from a metadiscursive perspective. The metadiscursive investigations have revealed that the widespread difference between propositional meaning and various flexible pragmatic behaviors of discourse markers results in ambiguity in human communication. The creative, complex, multi-layered context of discourse structure is the source of this flexible pragmatic behavior. This, in turn, results in pragmaticalization of discourse markers in the context of interactions. During this process, the propositional meaning of discourse markers is replaced with novel interactive meanings and functions in discourse.&nbsp; The exploration of pragmaticalzation system would give rise to an effective resource of knowledge, expertise, and skill in education, research, and learning in our scientific, educational, and administrative environments. Applying Fraser (2006) and Brinton (1996) models in the analysis of randomly sampled translation criticisms during the three decades, this descriptive and qualitative study revealed that all examples of elaborative and contrastive discourse markers experienced the process of pragmaticalization. Consequently, a six plane functional, pragmatic, and interactive, model for monitoring discourse structure in translation criticism genre was explored on the basis of flexible contextual variables. Moreover, this process of pragmaticalization was observed in three discoursal domains of ideation, action, and information. Therefore, the pragmatic functions of these meta-discursive elements is under the influence of the context resulting in a lot of complicated, novel, imaginative, and productive inferences. </strong></p> Ali Mohammad Mohammadi Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/778 A corpus-based study of comparing translation and non-translation: the case of Brill and Wikishia Encyclopedia of Islam https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/777 <p>The aim of this paper is to compare 4-word lexical bundles used in Wikishia encyclopedia of Islam which is a translation from Persian into English with Brill encyclopedia of Islam produced originally in English. Lexical bundles, defined as recurrent sequences of words – are important building blocks of discourse in spoken and written registers. 4 steps are followed namely extracting lexical bundles from both encyclopedias with the help of wordsmith tools, excluding the bundles that are <span class="fontstyle0">tied to the propositional content of particular source texts</span>&nbsp; such as time, place people, objects and actions, selecting the top ten most frequent bundles, and an in-depth analysis of the selected bundles by comparing the frequencies and the contexts in which they are used. The results showed that in spite of similarities between the two corpora in their use of lexical bundles, differences are also found. The differences in the use of lexical bundles are rooted in: cultural considerations, tendency of translations to using lexical bundles, and inclination of translations toward explicitness.</p> hadi Zare Mirak Abad, Dr. saeed ketabi Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/777 The Relationship between Explicit Knowledge of Source Language and EFL Learners’ Translation Ability https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/775 <p>Globalization progresses at exchanging flow of information in different fields: in politics, economics, education…without border and there is a growing demand for communicating scientific knowledge to the public in different forms. Maybe it is because of globalization that requires people to be equipped with advanced communication skills in order to be able to cope with the pace of life. Hence it made &nbsp;translation to be considered as a practical and efficient tool for: “recognizing of the latest scientific and technical achievements, exchanging cultural, artistic and literary information, recognizing economic and political situations, economic exchanges and trade, knowing about ancients and our ancestors’ thoughts” (Mohammadian &amp; Hashemi Toroujeni, 2017, p. 23). Therefore, in this highly interconnected network there is an interesting call for translation of the subjects into the language of public readers in any country. The importance of grammatical knowledge and its effectiveness in translation quality motivated the researcher to run this study and examine the relationship between explicit grammatical knowledge and translation ability. It is clear that grammar is an area that may merit some level of explicit teaching in English translation curriculum, particularly if explicit knowledge is in the grammar of source language. So the explicit grammatical knowledge and translation ability of 60 translation students at Islamic Azad University gathered through the tests revealed a moderately significant correlation. On the other hand, the explicit knowledge of Persian grammar provides a significant impact on the quality of translation from English to Persian among Iranian undergraduate English translation students.</p> Fatemeh Safari Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/775 A Tentative Model of Renarration in Audiovisual Translation https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/774 <p>The present article draws on Baker’s narrative theory and the concept of multimodality in audiovisual translation to develop a tentative model of renarration in AVT. Based on the multimodal nature of audiovisual texts and the interplay between the verbal and the non-verbal channels, it shows that AVT extends beyond the verbal channel to (re)construct reality. The meaning which emerges from the interplay of these channels is (re)narrated in the target language (TL). This process of renarration passes through the filter of AVT institute’s narrative location. AVT institutes actively participate in the construction of AV texts in the TL. AV renarration, therefore, not only represents but also reconstructs reality in TL. The article also provides a comprehensive list of thirty sites through which multimodal narrative is represented. It finally introduces Multimodal Narrative Analysis (MNA) as a tool for analyzing AV texts at the microlevel of verbal and non-verbal analyses.</p> Parina Ghomi, Farzaneh Farahzad Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/774 Fri, 11 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0430 A Study of Persian Translations of Literary Features in Kahlil Gibran’s ‘The Prophet’: (Skopos Theory Framework) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/769 <p>The primary goal of the current study was to approach the translation of literary features including metaphors and similes in the Persian translations of <em>‘The Prophet’</em> by Kahlil Gibran from Skopos theory lens. To do so, contrastive content analysis of both SL and TL versions of the Book in terms of the target features and Reiss and Vermeer’s (2014) model of Skopos theory of rules of skopos, coherence, and fidelity were followed. Data tabulation and analysis were followed by frequency analysis. The results revealed that in the translation of similes and metaphors from <em>‘The Prophet’</em> into Persian, Elahi Ghomsheie has followed both Skopos and coherent rules more than Daryabandari, however, in terms of fidelity Drayabandari takes priority over Elahi Ghomsheie, which ultimately proves Elahi Ghomsheie as a more successful translator than Daryabandari in total. These findings bear certain massages: the target reader and core message, or in other words, Nord’s “the end justifies the means” is of significance in translations process, and translation strategy selection is a function of both genre type and translator’s professionalism and background expertise.&nbsp;</p> Gholam-Reza Abbasian Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/769 Western literature in Iran: Iranian Literary Publishers’ Criteria for Choosing Western Literary Works to be translated in Iran https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/767 <p>The role of translation in the emergence of the modern novel in European style in the Iranian literary system has been studied for a long time. However, translating western literary works in the Iranian literary system is a complicated process involving many agents. One of these agents is the publisher who plays an important role in the publication and circulation of books in society. &nbsp;Regarding the importance of publishers, the present study intends to investigate the Iranian publishers’ criteria in choosing literary works for translation in Iran. Therefore, ten outstanding Iranian publishers were chosen to participate in an interview, and their criteria for choosing western literary works for translation were analyzed qualitatively. The findings of this study suggest that factors such as writer’s fame, international prizes won by the work, movies made out of the work and bestseller works are important determining factors that the publishers consider in their publication. However, a close look at these criteria reveals that they are not devoid of economic rationality, since a publishing house is, after all, an economic enterprise.&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Roya Monsefi, Reza Yalsharzeh, Ali Salmanpour Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/767 Working Memory and Note Quantity: Their Relationship with Consecutive Interpreting Performance https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/763 <p>This study examined the association between working memory (WM) and note quantity and their relationship with English-Persian consecutive interpreting (CI) performance in order to evaluate the predictive efficiency of the variables for CI performance. To follow the objectives of the study, two WM tasks (Digit Span, and Reading Span) and one CI task were administered to 30 MA translation students. The results indicated a positive and significant relationship between reading span and note quantity. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between both measures of WM and CI performance as well as between note quantity and CI performance. Further, the results of the regression analysis indicated that both measures of WM were predictors of CI performance while, the variable “note quantity” failed to be a predictor.</p> Mojtaba Amini, Azizollah Dabaghi, Dariush Nejadansari Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/763 Backgrounds of Translation Movement Dynamism at Sahl-bin-Haroun’s Era https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/762 <p>Arabic culture and literature experienced significant changes through political, economic, and cultural relations with civilized countries, especially Iran, reaching the peak with the advent of Islam, Arab world familiarization with other nations’ sciences and knowledge, and translation movement in Abbasid era. Persian scholar and translator of this age, Sahl-bin-Haroun, shone gloriously in literature among Arab society to the extent that scholars like Jahez and Ibn-al-Nadim called him “Islam Bozorgmehr.” He presented Persian society and Arabic culture through valuable Persian and translation works. The present study aims at investigating the backgrounds of translation movement and the influence of Persians on the excellence of Arabic literature with an emphasis on the role of Sahl-ibn-Haroun using a descriptive-analytical method. The peak of Arabs-Persians intellectual interaction was during the third and fourth Hijri centuries; as Persian scholars’ wisdom, proverbs, tales, allegories and sages were found among Arabs’ works. During that time, the well-skilled writing style and delicate language of Persians employed Arabic works as their thoughts and feelings’ representative. Persian figures’ dominance in Al-Ma’mun’s court and Caliphs’ preference for companionship with Persians were among causes making Iranian culture more dominant and translation movement far prosperous.</p> Ahmad Lamei Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/762 Fri, 11 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0430 Applying Gideon Toury Norms Theory to Qualitative Evaluation of Translation of Persian Poems into Arabic https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/758 <p>Applying Gideon's Theory of Norms in Qualitative Assessment of translation of Forough Farrokhzad Poems in Arabic. Translation acts as one of the agents of thought change as a bridge for the transmission of thoughts from different languages to one another. Translation has long attracted the attention of translators, and its translation or non-translation has always been the subject of controversy among translation theorists. In this era we are seeing more translators trying to translate contemporary Persian poetry. Many of these poems have been translated into Arabic by translators. Toury&rsquo;s theory points to the literary formats that exist in any particular culture and one of its main achievements was that Attention to the relationship between the individual texts of origin and the destination focused on the relationships that exist between the destination texts themselves. The main result of the qualitative evaluation of Abdul Moneim's translation to Arabic Indicates that his work It has an acceptance in the destination culture But it is far from sufficient in Persian.</p> Ali Afzali, Akram Madani Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/758 Sun, 18 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0330 Simultaneous Interpreting Competence https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/759 <p>The concept of competence in Translation Studies came to the fore in the 1990s although the first proposals were put forward in early 1970s.This term became so important that many universities around the world offering Translation/Interpreting programs tried to develop their curricula accordingly, a move forward that is still going on globally. However, what has been rather under-researched is the concept of Simultaneous Interpreting Competence. As a narrow part of a doctoral dissertation, the present study tried to develop an Interpreting Competence Model and apply it to professional simultaneous interpreters in Iran. To this end, the study included a conceptual and an empirical phase. In the conceptual phase, different translation competence models from the 1970s up to the present were compared and a Translation Competence Model was designed. Similarly, different interpreting competence models from 1930 up to the present were analyzed and an Interpreting Competence Model was developed. The conceptual phase concluded with the common and distinct competences required for professional translators and interpreters. In the empirical phase, the Simultaneous Interpreting Competence Model developed in the conceptual phase was applied to professional Interpreters. The case study included simultaneous interpreters from two Iranian news channels, PRESS TV and IRINN. The findings indicated that Iranian interpreters were lagging behind in certain sub-competences.</p> Abouzar Oraki, Gholam-Reza Tajvidi Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/759 Wed, 24 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0430 The Quality of the Translation of the Political English Web Pages into Persian: The Case of Google Translate and ACE Translator https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/757 <p>The increasing use of machine translation in the recent decades has necessitated the assessment of its quality to both evaluate the importance of machine translation performance and to upgrade its efficiency. To achieve this goal, the current study examined the quality of Google Translate and ACE Translator in translating political English web pages into Persian. Researchers randomly selected 20 paragraphs including 70 sentences and 1,523 words from CNN news on the internet. Two professional translators rated the quality of machine translations made by two machines based on Waddington’s (2001) model. Results indicated that translations of Google Translate and Ace Translator received the same score in their translation quality. These two machine translators produce translations full of semantic errors and can only yield a general meaning of the text and the extraction of exact meaning and the production of suitable equivalents still relies on utilizing human translators. The main problem is that these two translators mostly use the first meaning of the word which is the most frequent meaning usually leading to literal translation. These two machine translators cannot recognize the exact discoursal and pragmatic features that shape the meaning of a text. This research determined how identifying errors in machine translations can help as a starting point for assessing the quality of machine translation and improving its output.</p> Abdullah Sarani, Ali Malmir, Sedighe Hosseini Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/757 Validation of Automated Scores of Human Translation of Legal Texts against Non-test Indicators of Translation Competence https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/755 <p>This study tries to explore the validity of lexical Automated Translation Quality Evaluation Understudy Metrics (ATQEUM) in scoring Certified Translator Accreditation Tests in Islamic Republic of Iran as an instance of legal texts. This is conducted against non-test indicators of translation competence, including the participants records of their scores in “The Translation of Documents and Deeds I and II” courses, their average score of all courses of practical translation nature, and their BA GPA score in Translation Studies Major. Although, they have not revealed a significant correlation with the nontest indicators of translation competence, they have had a highly significant correlation with the scores granted by human expert scorers on the two sample tests. Therefore, according to all the data collected and analyzed, it has ultimately been concluded that a collection of “-PER, -TERp-A, BLUE-1, NIST-1, ROUGE-1, GTM-1” lexical ATQEUMs (including all various lexical similarity-based techniques of edit distance, precision, recall, and F-measure) can be considered as the optimal translation meta-evaluation set to score certified translator accreditation tests.</p> Somayyeh Karami, Dariush Nejadansari, Akbar Hesabi Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/755 Wed, 24 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0430 The Importance of Recognizing Discourse and Nodal Point of the Text in Translation Based on Coleman Barks’ Translation of The Masnavi of Molana https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/752 <p>Critics of Coleman Barks have considered various explanations for the reasoning behind the alteration of Rumi’s work. The most critical of these explanations are the lack of knowledge in Farsi language, the Culture and religion of Rumi and a purposeful/tendentious distortion of Islamic elements. In this research, we provide evidence against these claims through Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe’s “Discourse Theory and their notion of Nodal Point” to show that the most fundamental mistake of Coleman Barks is misrecognizing the nodal point in all of the works of Rumi. deconstruction of the allegories has led to the altering mystical symbols and rituals into tangible objects. This in turn has led to an inevitable distortion by Coleman Barks and his subsequent criticism. Based on his own discourse and the discourse of his audience, Coleman Barks has tried to clarify his reasoning behind his translations of Rumi’s poetry. To prove this hypothesis, we have analyzed his translations of Rumi’s “The Story of The Reed”.</p> shima bagheri ahranjani Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/752 تحلیل چهار ترجمه انگلیسی از گزیده اشعار بوستان سعدی با استفاده از نظریه کتفورد https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/747 <p><span dir="RTL" lang="FA">هدف این پژوهش، بررسی تطبیقی چهار ترجمه فارسی به انگلیسی گزیده اشعار سعدی، شاعر و نویسنده نامدار ایرانی، که توسط کلارک (۱۸۷۹)، دیوی (۱۸۸۲)، ادواردز (۱۹۱۱)، و ویکنز (۱۹۸۴) انجام شده­اند، &nbsp;با استفاده از نظریه کتفورد (۱۹۶۵) است. پنج شعر از بوستان سعدی توسط پژوهشگران به صورت تصادفی انتخاب و هر مصرع پس از بررسی، در دسته­بندی مشخص شده توسط کتفورد (۱۹۶۵) قرار گرفت. یافته­ها حاکی از آن بود که <em>تغییر ساختار</em> بیشترین کاربرد را در ترجمه هر چهار مترجم داشته است، و پس از آن، <em>تغییر صوری در سطح واژگانی</em> و <em>تغییر به واحدی بزرگتر،</em> به ترتیب بیشترین بسامد و کاربرد را داشتند. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که هر چهار مترجم روند مشابهی را در ترجمه اشعار انتخابی اتخاذ کردند. همچنین می­توان نتیجه گرفت که دو تغییر یعنی <em>تغییر ساختار</em> و <em>تغییر صوری در سطح واژگانی</em>، لازمه ترجمه این اشعار بوده­اند چرا که به ترتیب بیشترین استفاده را توسط هر چهار مترجم داشته­اند. نتایج این تحقیق می­تواند در حوزه مطالعات ترجمه و نیز ترجمه شعر به کار آید.</span> <span dir="RTL" lang="FA">&nbsp;</span></p> Enayat A. Shabani, Nafiseh Emadi, Fatemeh Daftari Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/747 From Trauma to Text https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/746 <p>Psychoanalysis has scarcely been applied as an instrument of textual analysis in literary criticism; even fewer cases of this application, either in terms of product or process analysis, exist within the field of translation studies. Consequently in order to develop a psychoanalytic method of textual analysis suitable to translation, the abundant literature on Lacanian psychoanalysis was first revisited to distinguish those paradigms and principles on text most valid for an analysis of psychotic language. The result was a taxonomy of textual elements, either introduced in or else inferred from the field of Lacanian psychoanalysis: non-sensical, anchoring points, cohesion, heteroglossia, la langue, musical competency, and imagery with their sub-types, all elements which permitted text producers/reproducers to vent out their psychoanalytic conflicts (with the discourse in which the subject has functioned) into construction of texts in a manner not unlike psychoanalysis sessions. As an instrument of analysis, the taxonomy here developed, therefore, has the potential to be applied in its totality or partially and with some adaptations into future researches.</p> Farzaneh Farahzad, Katayoun Davallou Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/746 Wed, 24 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0430 A Critique of the English Translation of Dāstān-hā-ye Shahr-e Jangi Based on Reiss's Text-Typological Model https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/745 <p>The present article aimed at scrutinizing the English translation of <em>Dāstān-hā-ye Shahr-e Jangi</em> (2009), published as <em>A City under Siege</em> (2011). The framework of criticism was the text typological model proposed by Reiss (2000). To this end, within the framework of a descriptive-comparative methodology, the relevant samples were identified and assessed based on the given model. Initially, the merits and demerits of the translation were pinpointed; then, the text-typological, linguistic, and extralinguistic dimensions of the source and target texts were compared. The findings revealed that <em>A City under Siege, </em>as a form-focused text, largely meets Reiss’ requirements for equivalence. Except for minor inadequacies in translating place factor and immediate context, this suggestion is valid inasmuch as the translation has also guaranteed the accuracy of information presented in the ST while retaining the relevant formal and aesthetic elements, which is in compliance with her ‘identifying’ method.</p> Salar Manafi Anri, Taher Jahanjouyan Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/745 Mon, 29 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0430 Crowdsourcing Translation https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/742 <p>Crowdsourcing Translation (CT) platforms are constantly changing and developing in a dynamic and user-friendly approach. The rapid changes in technology have also accelerated this process. The present study focused on a new platform; a free cloud-based mobile and desktop messaging app called Telegram. Telegram’s technical features were discussed in the study. Then, experience of <em>Iranian Translation Studies</em> channel in using the app as CT platform and its implemented CT workflow were illustrated in details. It was shown that this general platform which has not been designed for crowdsourcing and CT specifically has essential features to be used as CT platform and has already been used as CT platform. Moreover, this app can be considered as a serious potential platform for CT especially in restricted situations.</p> Razieh Azari, Marziyeh Khalilizadeh Ganjalikhani, Anahita Amirshoja’i Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/742 Wed, 24 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0430 معنا شناسی ترجمه آیات موجز با تکیه بر روابط همنشینی و جانشینی https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/741 <p>The Holy Quran, the most important prophetic miracle, is the proof of the legitimacy of Islam and the charter of life of all times. This literary masterpiece, in addition to its wise and wonderful selection of words, has reached a peak of eloquence in itself and has many meanings. Understanding the Qur'an requires a better and more familiar understanding of its literary and rhetorical modes that need translation to understand its meaning. It is necessary to remove one of these rhetorical techniques; And in the more republican and in most cases it is necessary to gain a better understanding of the meaning of the verse. Therefore, concise verses have words in them that translate them into a great deal.<br>This semantic research, which is a detailed analytical look at the translation text, explores the reflection of obscure words and examines concise verses in the companionship. The result of this study shows that in some cases some words are substituted for the word (s), but not in all the verses permitted by the word and the accompanying words.</p> مریم حیدری دلفاردی Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/741 THE DEGREE OF UN/TRANSLATABILITY OF THE QUR’ANIC ITEMS INCLUDING: MUQATA’AT, FIXED EXPRESSIONS, DIVINE NAMES AND QUR’ANIC WORDS https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/714 <p>Translating the Holy Qur’ᾱn has always been an important issue for the Qur’ᾱn scholars and translators. The present study attempts to determine the degree of un/translatability of the Qur’ᾱnic items (<em>Muqata’at</em>, <em>fixed expressions</em>, <em>divine names</em> and <em>Qur’</em><em>ᾱ</em><em>nic words</em>) through investigating different translations of The Holy Qur′an from Arabic into English. To do this, some steps were taken as follows: a) selecting three English translations of the Holy Qur’ᾱn by different translators from different countries; b) categorizing Qur’ᾱnic items into four groups in order to investigate them under four different categories; c) selecting some samples for each of the items from within more than 60 investigated items and comparing their renderings with the original; d) analyzing the translations and determining the strategies employed by the translators applying: 1. Ordudari and Mollanazar’s (2016) model (based on Aixela’s (1996) model), 2) Two kinds of untranslatability proposed by Catford, 3) Translation strategies and procedures proposed by Munday (2012); e) and finally evaluating the degree of un/translatability of the selected four Qur’ᾱnic items. Since the researcher does not have enough knowledge of Arabic language she applies a mediatory Persian translation of the Holy Qur’ᾱn translated by Bahrampoor. It was found out that except <em>Muqatta</em><em>′</em><em>at</em> – prefixed to 29 Surahs – other Qur’ᾱnic items are translatable to a considerable degree<em>. Literal</em> translation is the most frequently used strategy for translating either phrases or sentences. Other strategies are ‘<em>orthographic adaptation’, ‘word-for-word’, ‘synonym’ (word/phrase) </em>and ‘<em>Intertextual Gloss’</em> for translating ‘<em>Muqatta</em><em>′</em><em>at</em>’<em>, </em>‘<em>Fixed Expressions</em>’<em>, </em>‘<em>Divine Names </em>and <em>Qur’</em><em>ᾱ</em><em>nic words</em>’<em>,</em> respectively.&nbsp;</p> Aliyeh Darabi Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/714 The Techno-scientific Turn in Translation Studies https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/734 <p class="western"><span style="font-family: Fujiyama2, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">The article attempts to sensitize translation studies scholars to the potential interdisciplinary relationship between Translation Studies (TS) and Science and Technology Studies (STS). The article argues that the developments in translation technology (i.e. in Translation Machine and CAT tools) have brought about some extra-technical possibilities in translation technology, including the issues of <em>power</em>, <em>gender</em>, <em>ethics</em>, <em>lingua-cultural balance, technological support of languages </em>and<em> economy</em>. Then the authors attempt to argue how STS could provide TS with theoretical and methodological capacities to address these issues.</span></span></p> Saeid Safari, Hussein Mollanazar Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/734 Mon, 10 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0330 مقایسة کیفیت ترجمة اخبار سياسي انگلیسی به فارسی توسط مترجم گوگل و اِیس https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/732 <p>The increasing use of machine translation in the recent decades has necessitated the assessment of its quality to both evaluate the importance of machine translation performance and to upgrade its efficiency. To achieve this goal, the current study examined the quality of Google Translate and ACE Translator in translating political English web pages into Persian. Researchers randomly selected 20 paragraphs including 70 sentences and 1,523 words from CNN news on the internet. Two professional translators rated the quality of machine translations made by two machines based on Waddington’s (2001) model. Results indicated that translations of Google Translate and Ace Translator received the same score in their translation quality. These two machine translators produce translations full of semantic errors and can only yield a general meaning of the text and the extraction of exact meaning and the production of suitable equivalents still relies on utilizing human translators. The main problem is that these two translators mostly use the first meaning of the word which is the most frequent meaning usually leading to literal translation. These two machine translators cannot recognize the exact discoursal and pragmatic features that shape the meaning of a text. This research determined how identifying errors in machine translations can help as a starting point for assessing the quality of machine translation and improving its output.</p> Abdullah Sarani Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/732 Translation and Deterritorialization of Local Cultural Elements https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/728 <p class="western"><span style="font-family: Fujiyama2, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">At the age of globalization and with the removal of trade barriers between nations, local cultures also started to be exposed to the world due to the increased cultural interactions. The present study aims at exploring if and how translation can affect the spread of local cultural elements at this age of limitless exchanges. However, in order not to be lost in a process as broad as globalization, the study focuses on ‘deterritorialization’, the under-discussed phase of globalization which closely relates to the function of translation. In a try to capture the vague concept of deterritorialization, and explore the role of translation in this phase, the researcher conducts a case study on a Facebook campaign that takes a stand on a cultural issue. The critical discourse analysis of the translated texts of this page helps to meet the abstract concept of deterritorialization in practice- and indicates the real efficacy of translation in its implementation. Having been interpreted from different angles and for different purposes, the term ‘deterritorialization’ is then redefined, this time from Translation Studies’ perspective and with the purpose of serving some concerns and challenges of the field to which it closely relates.</span></span></p> Hoda Zamani Sarzendeh, Hussein Mollanazar Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/728 Sat, 08 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0330 "Precedent texts" and Their Translation in Translating Literary Texts from Russian to Persian https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/726 <p>Precedent texts are sentences, words, or phrases that have been used previously in literary or artistic works and are familiar to a wide range of individuals in a language community. Russian linguist, Karaulov, first came to the issue of "precedent texts" in 1986 and studied aspects of this issue. In this article, after introducing, explaining the features and categorization of "precedent texts", we will deal with the difficulties of translating them in literary texts and then we will investigate and classificate different methods of translating them. To clarify the issue of translating these precedent texts in literary texts, we will examine them in the persian translation of the Chekhov's play "The Seagull" by Serozh Stepanyan. We will see that most of the "precedent texts" used in this literary work(play) are "precedent names", and the translator in translation from Russian language to Persian has used these methods: transliteration and transcription as well as footnote explanations.</p> Mahnush Eskandary Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/726 Mon, 02 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0430 A Comparative-analytic Study of some Theoretical Issues in Translation Studies via Freud’s Ideas https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/725 <p>Psychoanalysis was founded by the famous psychoanalyst, Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), at the turn of the century. Therefore, the science of psychoanalysis does not have a long history. Moreover, in contrast to the long-standing activity of translating, translation in the form of the discipline called Translation Studies, has a short history. The present article studies some ideas of Freud and investigates the relationship between his ideas and some notions in Translation Studies. In the first part, Freud’s ideas on the unconscious and its formation are explained. Then, the process of new-born-baby’s growth, some mental disorders, and Oedipus complex are reviewed. Finally, the author investigates the relationship between the psychoanalyst’s ideas and some theoretical issues in Translation Studies. To accomplish this, it is attempted to take a look at Freud’s ideas through the spectacles of Translation Studies. Findings indicated that Oedipus complex is comparable to some concepts in translation studies; moreover, it was found that one can abstractly compare the process of new-born-baby’s growth with that of producing translation.</p> Mahmoud Afrouz Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/725 Mon, 02 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0430 بررسی انتقادی ترجمه واژگان مختلف به طنز https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/724 <p>In Persian, "Tanz" has three distinct meanings, which are ridicule and words close to it, humor and words close to it, and a kind of literary expression that can be defined as an artistic image of two antonyms.</p> <p>Having a few meanings for humor makes it impossible to translate a specific word into Tanz when translating English words into Persian. Translators who have used Tanz as a Shoukhi have translated the word Humor into tanz, but translators who have embraced the literary meaning of Tanz have translated Satire into tanz.</p> <p>On the other hand, the term Irony, which is close to humor and satire, is sometimes translated into Tanz because of its lack of exact equivalents in Persian. These differences have made it difficult to translate literary concepts into translation.</p> <p>This study proposes that Humor be translated into&nbsp; Shoukhi , Irony only into irony, and Satire into Tanz only, by examining the various meanings of humor in Persian language and literature and the words translated into Tanz.</p> mohammad hosein ravanbakhsh, mahmoud mehravaran Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/724 An Analysis of Discourse Markers in Translation Criticism https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/722 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>One of the outcomes and foundations of corpus-based explorative studies in discourse is designing and introducing discourse analysis models. This is one of the basic foundations of investigations in discourse and the norm in many branches of science. To achieve this objective, this study tried to analyze the uses of the most effective, complex, and frequent discourse monitoring metalanguage elements, i.e. discourse markers, in 15 randomly clustered samples of translation criticism in Iran over three decades. The size of the corpus was over 30000 words. The findings of the study resulted in a rectangular model for monitoring discourse in translation criticism including expression of elaborative relationship, contrastive relationship, inferential relationship, and temporal relationship. Additionally, different aspects, strengths, weaknesses, and the requirements of this process were analyzed. And finally, pedagogical and research implications were discussed and different suggestions and recommendations regarding the requirements of translation criticism, education, and studies were proposed.</p> Ali Mohammad Mohammadi, Rahim Dehghan Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/722 Fri, 11 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0430 A Study of the Efficiency of Garces’ Model in the Assessment of Qur'an Translation; A case study of Definition and Cultural Equivalence https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/718 <p>Evaluation of the Qur'an translation has not yet had a comprehensive model. In order to achieve such a model, we can first examine the efficacy of existing evaluation models. In this regard, the present article examines the effectiveness of the Garces model in evaluating the translation of the Qur'an, examining the factors “Definition” and “Cultural equivalence”. This study shows that Garces model is useful for evaluating TT-oriented translations of the Holy Quran, but it should be reviewed in accordance with linguistic features of the Quran. The usage of “Definition” and “Cultural equivalent” can be seen in the translation of Qur'anic terms and Arabic cultural terms, sometimes with borrowing and sometimes in substitution.</p> <p>If there is no equivalent for Quranic term in Persian, the translator will use the technique of definition and explanation associated with the Quranic term. In other situation, which the Persian language has borrowed the Qur'anic term, there is no need to use the above techniques and borrowing will be enough in translation. Since the Islamic culture of Iran is derived from Quran culture and the purpose of Persian translations is to translate the Quran culture in a pure manner, if the cultural equivalent causes no decultration of the source word, the use of cultural equivalents is permissible.</p> Ensiye Hashemi, shahriar Niazi Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/718 Translatability of Postmodern Features: A Study of Translations of Donald Barthelme’s Short Stories https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/715 <p>Postmodern literature has unique features that manifest themselves in the content, in the form or in both form and content. This research first attempts to identify the postmodern features in a corpus of English postmodern literature and examines their possible translatability across language and cultural barriers. To this end, a corpus of ten English postmodern short stories by Donald Barthelme along with their corresponding translations into Persian was developed. Drawing on the integrative model of analysis developed for this study, the postmodern features in English stories were identified and their corresponding translations were analyzed at different levels. The results of the study revealed that postmodern features were highly translatable since they went through minimum transformation in the process of translation. In fact, translated stories were almost equally postmodern as the original stories and they had preserved the postmodern features to a great extent. This high degree of translatability of postmodern qualities, however, should be taken with a grain of salt. When translators consciously make effort to preserve these features, translatability is a justified interpretation. However, this high degree of translatability could be due to the fact that postmodern features are manifested predominantly at extrasentential level and may thus escape translators’ notice and manipulations. Another interpretation is that to avoid stepping into a writing project, translators have no choice but to preserve the postmodern features in translation.</p> Fatemeh Parham Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/715 Explicitation in Adult and Children Literature with regard to Roald Dahl Works https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/713 <p>Through the history of translation, translators have tried to make communication between nations. Explicitation as a strategy is used to provide a more understanble target text for target audiences. The aim of this study was to understand to what extent a translator considers target audiences in the process of translation and tend to be more explicite in order to make the target texts. So similarities and differences of explicitations for different audiences were studied in the translation of literature. For this purpose, explicitation occurrences were studied in the translation of adult and children’s literature. The data were gathered from Roald Dahl works and their translated versions by Tahmasebi namely: Over to you (1946), Kiss, kiss (1960) and Someone like you (1953) as adult literature, and The witches (1983), Matilda (1988), and Charlie and the chocolate factory (1964) as the children literature. Almost 16000 words were investigated and the candidates of explicitation were extracted through adopting Klaudy's (1998) model. The results of the research revealed that although explicitation in the translation of children literature (1032 items) was more than the translation of adult literature (969 items), the translator's behavior was mostly the same. However, the difference in employing explictation in the translation of adult literature was rooted in differences between the features of children and adult literature, whereas in the translation of children, it was rooted in considering children's knowledge. The outcomes of this study not only could help translators, but also translation educators and translator trainers.</p> Hoda Talasaz, Mohammad Rahbar Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/713 How to translate cultural elements into Arabic-Persian translation in the novel Arzonnefagh based on Newark's theoretical framework https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/711 <p>Culture is a human phenomenon and human creature, and it means that all human heritage is transmitted through a generation to another generation. Today, translation has become an important element in social life. Considering that translating is the translation from one language into another language and each language is merged with its culture, we can know the translation is a transfer from a culture to another culture. The culture transfer from a society to another is done by language and translation and the translator is an intermediate between two cultures and, in addition to the awareness of destination language, he should be fully aware of its culture. Since a long time ago translators have encountered the problems of translating of cultural concepts and many theorists have devised ideas and presented the necessary strategies for cultural translation that Peter Newmark is one of these theorists. We try to examine the success of the translator in translating of cultural concepts by using the Newmark model and blended method (quantitative-qualitative). The translator has used the process combined method and cultural equivalents more than other translation processes. However, the translator has been able to provide an acceptable translation of this novel but in some cases, he has limited the transliteration process that has caused to text translation get away from destination culture.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> مائده اکبرکرکاسی, سعداله همایونی, شهریار نیازی Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/711 Translation as Renarration: The Case of the Persian Translation of The Cambridge History of Islam https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/706 <p class="western"><span style="font-family: Fujiyama2, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Drawing on narrative theory and the notion of framing through paratextual devices, the present study focused on a Persian translation of The Cambridge History of Islam and examined one of its most heavily annotated sections to see how the events elaborated in the original had been renarrated through the paratexts provided by the translator. The section in question was analyzed to see what controversial events had been narrated. Then the notes and footnotes in the translation were examined to see how the events had been renarrated. The purpose was to see what new patterns of causal emplotment had been constructed. The results seemed to be showing that The Cambridge History of Islam had meant to construct a negative and reductionist narrative of Islam and alsohad tried to background or present negatively the events and characters related to the Shia Islam. However, the translator seemed to have provided the reader with an interpretive context in which the negative narratives of Islam had been undermined and the elements of the Shia Islam had been foregrounded.</span></span></p> Kaveh Bolouri, Mazdak Bolouri Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/706 Sat, 08 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0330 Coherence and Implicature in English Translations of Rumi’s Selected Poems: A Bakerian Pragmatic Approach https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/704 <p>The present paper identifies, compares and analyzes <em>coherence</em> and <em>implicature</em>, two subsets of Mona Baker’s pragmatic equivalence, in two translations of Rumi’s <em>Masnavi</em> <em>Ma'navi</em>; one rendered by a native speaker of the source language, Jawid Mojaddedi, the other by a native speaker of the target language. Poetry translation loses the poet's <strong>literary style</strong> and <strong>conjunction of the words</strong> if the translations do not have <em>coherences</em>; also, loses the main meaning and the same elements between ST and TT if the translations don't have <em>implicatures.</em> The research intends to find out whether the native translator and the English translator have used the same elements to represent <em>coherence</em> and <em>implicature</em> in the translated works and if there exists any relation between the implementation of <em>c</em><em>oherence</em> and <em>implicature</em> and closeness to Rumi’s original literary style. The findings of this research reveal that Whinfield's translation is closer to Molana's literary style than Mojaddedi's. Moreover, the English translator has used the same elements to represent<em> coherence</em> and <em>implicature</em> more than the native translator.&nbsp;</p> Bita Dabiri, Dr Razieh Eslamieh Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/704 Comparative Study of Interactive and Interactional Metadiscourse Markers in Nahj al-Balaghah Sermons and Letters https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/702 <p class="western"><span style="font-family: Fujiyama2, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">The aim of this paper is to investigate the comparative analysis of interactive and interaction meta-discourse in sermons and letters of Islam based on Highland classification. For this purpose, all sermons and letters of Islam-e-Balagat were studied and selected in the sampling phase, letters and sermons, which had a great deal of topic and audience among other sermons and letters. Then dialog and interactive markers are extracted from the text of these sermons and letters. In order to investigate the significant differences between the types of citations in sermons and selected letters, the K-square test was used. The results showed that in the examined sermons, the 613 frequency, the most-valuable dialog markers, are, while the intra-text references, with only one frequency, have a low-quality dialog marker. Among the interactive markers, in the first class, there are in-line with 296 repetitions and the precautionary expressions are in the last category 26 times. Also, in the studied letters, again, with the frequency of 559, the most valuable dialog indicators are, while the citation is only with a frequency, a low-duplicate dialog marker. Among the interactive markers, the frequency of the 257 is more than the most duplicate markers and at the end of the precautionary terms with a frequency of 35. Test hypotheses showed that there was a significant relationship between type of text and type of indicators, but there was no significant statistical difference in the number of dialog indicators and interactive markers between sermons and examined letters.</span></span></p> Maryam Sadat Tayarani, Seyed Ali Asghar Soltani, Ahmad Pakatchi, Ali Rabiee Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/702 Sat, 08 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0330 Paratextual Visibility: A Case of Footnotes Used by the Iranian Fiction Translators https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/701 <p>In the past few years, scholars have redirected the research path to a new and promising avenue wherein translator’s visibility is explored from paratexts rather than from the translations, highlighting the pivotal role and the position of translators as key agents in translation process. This article investigated the paratextual visibility of Iranian fiction translators by the examination of their footnotes to unveil the traces of translators’ self-expressions and reveal their rationales for choosing a particular translation technique. The analysis comprises footnotes of 300 English to Persian translated fictions. Data analysis resulted in a categorization of footnotes: transliteration, explanatory + transliteration, explanatory, translational, referential. A small number of footnotes were concerned with translation issue mainly revolving around mere equivalents between languages. Overall, it was found that although footnotes could be counted a precious place for translators to highlight their presence, Iranian fiction translators were less inclined to talk about their translation process and its challenges.</p> Ameneh Yari, Zahra Amirian, Mohammad Amiryousefi Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/701 Sat, 06 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0430 A Meta-analytical Critique of Antoine Berman’s Retranslation Hypothesis https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/700 <p>The present article addresses the validity of Berman’s Retranslation Hypothesis (which posits that literary retranslations are closer to the original than first translations) through a systematic, meta-analytical investigation of the empirical studies conducted to the present day on this topic. To this end, a representative sample of the empirical studies regarding RH over the past three decades was collected. The list contained fourteen studies carried out in different settings and between different language-pairs. The results of the meta-analysis demonstrated that empirical data has failed to confirm RH as roughly 60% of the studies have refuted it while the remaining 40% have lent support to it. Furthermore, the results illustrated that all the studies conducted shared one finding: apart from ‘ageing’ of the translations, there are more important motivations giving rise to retranslation including source and target literary norms, translational norms, ideology, socio-political relations, translators’ attitude and experience, and so forth. The meta-analysis conducted also revealed that Berman has apparently overlooked the influence of two important factors in the formation of retranslations: text type, and the potentials of multiple (re)interpretations of texts. In light of the data, his claim that retranslations occur because first translations are ‘incomplete’ also faces serious challenges.</p> Mir Saeed Mousavi Razavi, Sajjad Tahmasbi Boveiri Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/700 Sat, 06 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0430 The Effects of the Court’s Patronage on the Selection of Books for Translation in the State Translation Bureau https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/699 <p>This study explored the works translated in the State Translation Bureau at the time Nasser al-Din Shah Ghajar ruled in Iran. The aim was to explore the Court’s role in the selection of books for translation. To do so, libraries and online data banks were searched to prepare the list of books translated in the Bureau, and then, within the framework of Lefevere’s Patronage Theory, the Shah’s support for the translation of certain works and his negligence for certain other works were analyzed. The works on the list were categorized into travel writing, newspaper articles, history, literature, politics, geography, science, military texts, economy and others. The Shah’s interests and the need he felt for the translation of certain works as well as attempts made by the chairman of the Bureau to inform the Shah were found to be the most important factors influencing the selection of works for translation. The largest number of translated books belonged to the categories of travel writing, newspaper articles and history. In addition, books of literature, politics, geography, science and military tactics were also translated considerably. However, few books were translated in areas such as economy and agriculture, and no books were selected for translation in those areas for which the Shah felt no need, or which he opposed seriously. The non-selection of works was evaluated as relevant to the Shah’s unwillingness for reform and changes in the status quo.</p> Mazdak Bolouri, Mehdi Mirkiaei Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/699 Sat, 06 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0430 Semantics of the Translation of the Condensed Verses of the Qur'an Based on Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic Relations https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/698 <p>The Holy Qur'an, the most important prophetic miracle, is the document of the truth of Islam and the charter of life at all times. This literary masterpiece, along with the wise and audacious selection of words, has reached the peak of eloquence and rhetoric and has a great deal of meaning and value. The correct understanding of the Qur'an depends on a better acquaintance with literary and rhetorical forms, which requires translation to get the concept. One of these rhetorical techniques is necessary (deletion); attention should be paid to it. And mentioning the disgrace in the republics and, in most cases, seemingly necessary to achieve a better understanding of the meaning of the verse. Therefore, succinct verses contain words within themselves that their translation is a great help in understanding the verses.<br>This research, by means of semantics, which gives a detailed analytical look to the text of the translation, addresses the explanation of the reflection of the words and examines the succinct verses in the companion axis. The result of this research suggests that, in some cases, the substitution of some of the words in the words of the word (s) is impregnable, but in all the verses it is not possible to talk about the revelation and the accompaniment of the blatant words.</p> Maryam Heidari Delfari, Simin Valvi Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/698 Wed, 24 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0430 Literature of Resistance Concerning Iran-Iraq War in English Translation https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/697 <p>Iran-Iraq War, imposed on Iran on September 22, 1980 seems to be the greatest historical phenomena in Iran during the twentieth century. This war is called Defa-ye Moghadas, or Holly Defence in Iran. As a result of this social phenomenon, Literature of Resistance was born. This paper aims to show how this genre, which is full of religious, cultural and ideological references, is translated and what are the implications of such translation strategies in terms of critical discourse analysis and how it affects the target text(metatext). To this end, Newmark’s (1998) classification of culture-specific items, translational relationships model by Delabastita (1993) and the critical discourse analysis developed by Farahzad(2012) were applied to investigate three literary books in this genre. The results obtained from comparing and contrasting this corpus revealed that in most cases the translated texts (metatexts) are domesticated and neutralized and are not representative of the identity of Iranians. It may be inferred as being affected by the ideology of the translator or the effect of prevailing ideology of the target culture.</p> fateme Eshtaaqi Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/697 Social Constructivism in Translator Education: The Stakeholders’ Needs Assessment https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/694 <p class="western"><span style="font-family: Fujiyama2, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-size: small;">The present survey-based study aimed at investigating the principles of social constructivist education in undergraduate translator training programs in Iran. To this aim, a needs assessment was conducted to identify market demands and students’ needs for three constructivist principles of </span><span style="font-size: small;"><em>authenticity</em></span><span style="font-size: small;">, </span><span style="font-size: small;"><em>collaboration</em></span><span style="font-size: small;"> and </span><span style="font-size: small;"><em>scaffolding</em></span><span style="font-size: small;">. Translation instructors, as the third group of stakeholders, were further surveyed about their teaching approach in terms of the three categories. To find out whether current translation education in Iran reflects market demands and students’ needs with respect to the mentioned constructivist concepts, the results of the surveys were then compared. Upon data analysis, it became evident that </span><span style="font-size: small;"><em>scaffolding</em></span><span style="font-size: small;">, indicating students as responsible learners and teachers providing adequate support for the formers’ learning, was the most important principle for the first two groups of participants. </span><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Scaffolding </em></span><span style="font-size: small;">was similarly described by translation instructors as the most common principle in their teaching approach. On the other hand, while professional translators and students consider </span><span style="font-size: small;"><em>authenticity </em></span><span style="font-size: small;">as the second most important principle, it was profoundly lacking in the teaching approach university instructors take. Therefore, the results suggest that there is a big gap between the current and the desired situation in Iranian undergraduate translator training programs for the principle of “authenticity”, i.e. working on real translation projects with students taking various roles reflecting the real professional translation practice. The demographic information elicited from the surveys also provided evidence for this lacking connection between academia and professional translation practice in Iran. </span></span></span></p> Sajedeh Sadat Hosseini, Gholam-Reza Tajvidi, Koen Kerremans Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/694 Mon, 10 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0330 Semantic Strategy: A Dominant Method in Translating Iltifat in Three English Translations of the Quran https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/693 <p>This essay is an investigation into the translation of reference switch “Iltifat” and its types, in three English translations of the Quran. The essay shows that semantic translation method is the most frequently used strategy with regard to the translation of different types of Iltifat. The study’s main concern is the challenges with which a translator may confront in translating Iltifat. An Iltifat has different kinds of which a shift in the use of pronouns is the most frequently used in the Quran. In order to present an analytical description of how different types of Iltifat are translated, the theoretical framework of the study or an introduction of translation methods is presented at first. Then, the main theories, especially, the two translation methods by Newmark (1988), namely, communicative and semantic translations, are defined. Third, data collection procedures are presented; the data has been extracted from a thorough examination of four verses in which Iltifat has been used. The verses were selected and analyzed from different suras of the three English Quran translations: Yusuf Ali (1934), Pickthall (1930) and Arberry (1955). Careful analysis of the selected translated verses indicates that all three translators have tried to make use of semantic translation method and its range as the most frequently used method to remain faithful to the original. Translators’ use of this translation method may account, on the one hand, for the importance of the original text, but it could also be an indicator of the translators’ partiality and ideology.</p> Abolfazl Horri Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/693 Fri, 30 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0430 A Model for Crowdsourcing Development of Databases for Qur’anic Studies Sources https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/692 <p>Technology has become an integral part of the translation task. Nevertheless, few translation memories and term bases are available for translating Qur’anic Studies sources. Without them, attaining maximum efficiency in this field is not possible because such tools facilitate decision-making in the translation process from/into Persian. There is an imperative need for developing such databases. Creating parallel corpora and aligning them to come up with translation memories and term banks can help improve the quantity and quality of translations of Qur’anic Studies sources from/into Persian. However, this task cannot be carried out by a single person. Using crowdsourcing in developing TMs and TBs for Qur’anic Studies sources is an alternative that can expedite the task. Nonetheless, crowdsourcing in developing such databases is a relatively unattended research area. Examining existing models revealed that no pre-existing Translation Studies model suited the needs of this study. With the motive of filling this gap, the researchers opted for developing and validating a model for human resource management in Translation Studies through adopting a crowdsourcing model (the Metropolis Model) and adapting it for their specific conditions (developingthe Jāmiʿ model). Findings of this research indicate that the Jāmiʿ Model is adequate for developing TMs and TBs.</p> Hussein Mollanazar, Akram Tayyebi Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/692 Fri, 30 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0430 The Contribution of Translation to the Formation of Themes of 'city' and 'women' in the Social Novel in ‘Poetics Proper’ of the Late Qajar Era (1895–1925) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/688 <p>Social novel emerged in ‘poetics proper’ of the late Qajar era and was established in Persian literary system during Pahlavi. In this genre, ‘city’ and ‘women’ constitute the dominant themes. Applying the ‘Model for the Analysis of Translation Poetics’, the present study attempted to investigate the contribution of translation to the emergence of the social novel in ‘poetics proper’ of the late Qajar era (1313-1344AH/1275-1304SH). Firstly, based on the most important literary histories and bibliographical lists of translations of this period, main tenets of ‘poetics proper’ were identified and it was found that social novel can be categorized under ‘fictional literature patronized by the press system and publishing houses/publishers to be produced with the critique-reform function’. Then, 333 translations were investigated and it was illustrated that translation of travelogue and police-detective novels contributed the theme of ‘city’ to this genre, translation of Rousseau’s works drew writers’ attention to the theme of ‘city’ in contrast to the ‘country’, and translation of women biographies/stories, women’ educational-legal literature and women’s translation practices in women’s press played an important role in writing about ‘women’s’ problems. Moreover, the present study showed that the way these themes were dealt with in social novels of the late Qajar era, compared to the way they were considered during pre-Constitution, found a new emphasis that the view toward ‘city’ and ‘women’ was no longer ‘ideal-romantic’, but more realistic along with elements of ‘negative/dark romanticism’. Hence, during the late Qajar toward Phalavi I, urbanization and modernization brought corruption and prostitution.</p> Maryam Saidi, Salar Manafi Anari Copyright (c) 2020 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/688 Sat, 08 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0330 Exploring Hybridity in a Sample of English Feature Films Dubbed into Persian by IRIB https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/682 <p>The present paper explores the complex phenomenon of hybridity in the multisemiotic system of dubbing. Mollanazar and Parham’s (2009) model was used and adapted according to Delabastita’s (1989) distinction of film signs in order to identify manifestations of hybridity in all audio-verbal, audio-nonverbal, visual-verbal, and visual-nonverbal layers of dubbing. First, manifestations of hybridity characterized as unusual and strange for the target culture were identified and extracted from the Persian films dubbed by IRIB. In the next step, the type of such manifestations was determined by comparing and contrasting them with their corresponding original versions according to the first approach of Mollanazar and Parham’s (2009) model. The results revealed that Names and Dates occupied the first place not only in the total frequency of the manifestations of hybridity in the four layers, but also in the frequency of such elements in both audio-verbal and visual-verbal layers, separately. The audio-verbal and visual-nonverbal layers were the first and second layers which showed the most frequent manifestations among four layers, respectively. As far as the type of such elements is concerned, concrete Cultureme manifestations (CCMs) were the most frequent type.</p> Hussein Mollanazar, Arghavan Omranipour Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/682 Fri, 30 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0430 Strategies Used in Rendering Humor in Translations of “A Man Called Ove" by Fredrick Backman https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/680 <h1>Abstract</h1> <p>In the current study, two translations by Farnaz Taimorzuv (2017) and Hossein Tehrani (2016) of the book “A Man Called Ove” by Fredrick Backman, which is abundant in humor, were selected. The transition&nbsp;of humor from the source language to the target language was investigated by the syntactic strategy of Chesterman (2016). During the analysis of humor, the humorous excerpts were identified. Afterwards, the transference of humorous effects was investigated in both Persian translations. The results showed that, in translation of humor at the linguistic level, the translators have not been fully successful. Neither have they effectively rendered malapropism.&nbsp; Finally, in translation of repetition and parallelism, Taimorzuv applies some strategies to transfer the humoristic effect to the target text, whereas Tehrani seems to have ignored the aesthetic values of the source text.</p> fatemeh ghanbar beheshti, Amir mahdavi zafarghandi Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/680 Translation Shifts and Narratology: A Case Study of ‘Journey to Heading 270 Degrees’ https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/677 <p>Bringing the concepts of narratology and optional shifts together, the present research elaborated on Iran-Iraq War’s translated narration through a case study of a novel on this war. We analyzed the English translation of the Persian novel, <em>Journey to Heading 270 Degrees</em>, to examine how Iran-Iraq War narratives were translated and if and how the different narration of the translator affected the narratological aspect of the source narrative. To this end, Pekkanen (2010)’s model was applied to explore into the formal dissimilarities between the source text and the target text at the micro-textual level through a linguistic comparative analysis aimed at identifying optional shifts. Optional shifts were then categorized and the most frequent optional shifts, which made a pattern in the translated text, were identified. As the final step, the narratological aspect(s) were studied in the light of the optional shifts. Our analysis revealed that the optional shift of expansion-additions which were the most frequent shift type with 203 instances, contraction-deletions with 112 instances, and optional shifts of miscellaneous cases with 36 instances affected the degree of the specification as a narratological aspect in this study.</p> Helia Vaezian, Fatemeh Ghaderi Bafti Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/677 Exploring the Effectiveness of Using Translation in Teaching Grammar to English as a Foreign Language Learners https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/675 <p>There have been many controversies in the history of language education regarding the effectiveness of using students’ mother tongue in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of using translation in teaching grammar to English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students. To do so, 30 EFL students were randomly selected and assigned to two groups, namely control and experimental. To examine the effectiveness of using translation in teaching grammar, the two groups were taught for 18 sessions by the use of two different methods. In the experimental group, students’ L1 was ‘judiciously’ used while teaching the grammatical rules, while in the control group, English language was used as the sole means of instruction. After 18 sessions of instruction, the performance of the two groups in the pre-test and posttest were compared using T-test and Mann-Whitney U test. The findings indicated that the experimental group outperformed the control one, which confirmed the positive effect of using translation on teaching grammar to EFL learners. The results were discussed and the pedagogical implications were made.</p> Dr. Hossein Navidinia, Ms. Marzieh Khoshhal, Dr. Mohsen Mobaraki Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/675 Introducing a Model for Analyzing the Position of Translation Service Quality in Iran from the Customer Perspective https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/674 <p>The main purpose of this study was to propose a model analyzing the position of translation service quality in Iran from the customers’ perspective based on SERVQUAL model in translation agencies in Mashhad and Tehran. For this purpose, AMOS software was applied to model the structural equations. The research was conducted with a sample size of 60 experts (20 academic experts and 40 customers of translation services). The proposed model was also developed based on various clusters. The results showed that the factor correlation between “cluster of translation agency quality in non-literary translation projects in language pair English-Persian” and “cluster of translator quality” was reported 0.936 based on the structural loadings of confirmatory factor analysis. Moreover, the factor correlation between “cluster of translation agency quality in non-literary translation projects in language pair English-Persian” and “cluster of service quality for customers” was reported 0.521 based on the structural loadings of confirmatory factor analysis. Finally, the factor correlation between “quality analysis of translation services” and “cluster of service quality for customers” was reported 0.566 based on the structural loadings of confirmatory factor analysis. Overall, the results showed the good fitting of the proposed model and thus validated the model as a tool for evaluating translation service quality in the field.</p> Salar Manafi Anari, Elaheh Kianian Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/674 Thu, 23 May 2019 00:00:00 +0430 Policy, Planning, and Translation in the Islamic Republic of Iran https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/673 <p>The dissolution of the Soviet Union signaled the end of crackdown on Islam in the newly independent Republic of Azerbaijan. This created a space for major Muslim countries, especially Iran, to attempt to revive Islam in the secularized society through the supply of translated religious literature, among other means. Assuming this to be an act of culture planning, the present paper aims to study the Iranian culture planning through translation in post‑Soviet Azerbaijan. Using a bibliography of religious literature translated into Azerbaijani and published in Iran, an attempt is made to explore this case by analyzing the agents involved (translators and publishers), the titles translated and their intended functions, and the policies that guided this culture planning endeavor. We argue that the post-revolutionary Iranian (foreign) cultural policy of ‘Islamization’ was the guiding force behind the activity, which was primarily carried out by mostly (semi‑)private publishers and anonymous translators.</p> Gholam-Reza Tajvidi, Ehsan Alipour Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/673 Thu, 23 May 2019 00:00:00 +0430 Methods Employed in Rendering Metonymy in the Ancient Translations of the Holy Qur'an: The Case of Tabari, Meybodi and Abul-Futouh Razi https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/672 <p>Familiarity with the techniques of rhetoric and the recognition of metonymy and its different kinds is one of the important issues in the translation of the Holy Qur'an. Therefore, in this paper, first, the method of examining the translation of the Qur'an and metonymy and its kinds is discussed, and then based on the deductive-inductive method, by mentioning evidence from the individual authorized metonymy of the ten second parts (joz') of the Holy Qur'an, the methods of their rendering in the three ancient Quranic translations (Tabari, Meybodi and Abul-Futouh Razi) have been investigated. According to the findings of the study and its analysis, the results indicate: the mentioned translators have not followed the same methods in rendering authorized metonymy. They have used various methods of translation, such as literal, content-wise, and interpretive translation in conveying the meaning of metonymy to the audience. Tabari and Abul-Futouh Razi have followed mostly literal translation. But Meybodi has had the most content-wise translation in rendering metonymy.</p> Zahra Mohammadi, Simin Valavi Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/672 Thu, 23 May 2019 00:00:00 +0430 Nezami Ganjavi's Word-selection Art in Translating Scientific https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/671 <p>In the field of Islamic-Iranian civilization, the educated made more effort for transferring culture and knowledge; especially from the 3<sup>rd</sup>to 6<sup>th</sup>century AH linguistic sciences and translation of scientific works boomed. Nezami in translating into Persian language has a privileged position. Using scientific approaches to word building, he has provided great services to the Persian language.</p> <p>Using content analysis method, the author reviewed Nezami's <em>Khamsah</em> to answer this fundamental question: what methods has Nezami utilized in translating <em>hapax legomena</em> and Arabic-Persian compounds, and how successful was he in this way? After the review, one can point out three methods of Nezami in the process of translation: equivalents with the combination of common words in Persian language, translation with the combination of Arabic and Persian word, and word-by-word translation. Sometimes he has not translated the word or compound at all; and this is true more of canonical and legal terms. Nezami's good way in translating is the building of new words in translation, which he himself claimed to have.</p> Giti Faraji, Ali Mohammad Poshtdar Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/671 Thu, 23 May 2019 00:00:00 +0430 An Examination of Home Culture Attachment among Iranian Translation Students and Its Relation to Their Self-Efficacy and Translation Achievement https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/669 <p>The recent debates on Translation Studies as an interdisciplinary field of study have inaugurated the extension of new perspectives on its line of research. In this regard, the focus of attention has been devoted not only on the product but also the process of translating whose main contributors are translators. In line with this contention, this study aimed to survey the level of home culture attachment among the second- third- fourth- year of B.A translation student, and its relation to their translation quality achievement. As to the impact of self-efficacy on human behavior and practice which has been acknowledged up to now, this study also aimed to investigate the relationship between students’ home culture attachment and their self-efficacy. To this end, two previously constructed and validated Home Culture Attachment and translation self-efficacy questionnaires were administered to a sample of 103 translation students, who were studying translation in Imam Reza International University in Mashhad, a city in the northeast of Iran. Finally, the statistical results were discussed and implications were provided.</p> زهرا مقدسی, Behzad Ghonsooly, Afsaneh Ghanizadeh Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/669 A Narrative-Argumentation Framework for Translation Quality Assessment https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/668 <p>Although argumentation theory can contribute to translation studies and especially translation quality assessment (TQA), argumentation models need to be further expanded to specifically serve the process of translation. How an argument is embedded within a larger body of text (e.g. a book chapter), and how the argument-related structural pieces are put together through textual progression represent some of the challenging questions that assessors/practitioners of translation need to deal with. This study proposes a holistic, multi-genre TQA framework that relies on narrative theory and argumentation theory. Pragma-dialectics (including argument scheme and structure) shapes the argumentative parcel, while the notion of narrative coherence, with reference to Ricoeur’s configuration, builds the narrative component. The framework is tested on an English translation of a Rumi’s chapter in his major book <em>Fihi Ma Fihi </em>(<em>Discourses of Rumi</em>). The findings show that the framework, as a multifaceted TQA instrument, can functionally process arguments in narratives.</p> Mohammad Ali Kharmandar, Amin Karimnia Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/668 Fri, 30 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0430 Translation, Modernization and Enlightenment: The Qajar Translation Movement https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/665 <p>This paper investigates the role of translation in the socio-political changes in Iran under the Qajars ruling over the country from 1789 to 1925. It primarily covers the 1807–1906 time period—from the initiation of the translation movement around 1807 in the reign of Fath Ali Shah to the proclamation of the Iranian Constitution in 1906 in the reign of Mozaffar al-Din Shah. The paper, as a microhistorical research, argues that translation contributed to the launch of modernization projects through introducing Western sciences and technologies as well as expanding modern education. At the same time, it played a major role in raising Iranians’ awareness, inspiring political campaigns and promoting ethical values, which ultimately paved the way for the Iranian Constitutional Revolution in 1906.</p> Farzaneh Farahzad, Somayeh Adili Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/665 Fri, 30 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0430 A Critical Discourse Analysis of Political Implications in Three Persian Translations of “Animal Farm” https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/662 <ol> <li class="show">This study draws on a comparative framework to evaluate the translation of political implications in three Persian translations of the novella <em>Animal Farm </em>(by George Orwell), using&nbsp; Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis (CDA) model. The study regards political implications and ideologies as a mode of background knowledge shared by writers and audiences in the source language. Fairclough’s model involves three qualitative stages (interpretation, explanation, reproduction) and takes into account ideological stances. Political allusions in novels, if not sufficiently translated, could downgrade the implicit purposes and even the meaningfulness of the text. Given this significant function, the study specifically focuses on linguistic items that play an extra-textual role in meaning formation and the way they are translated into Persian. Hidden ideologies may appear in the form of assumptions, presuppositions, interactional history, or cultural references. This study emphasizes that translators must not take at face value what Fairclough calls “members resources” and must examine their choices against other sources.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</li> </ol> Amin Karimnia Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/662 Translation and Cultural Globalization https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/661 <p>The present study aims at exploring if and how translation can affect cultural diversity at the age of globalization. A brief investigation of the interaction between globalization and local cultures allows meeting one of the less discussed functions of translation in this regard, studied under the concept of ‘deterritorialization’. In a try to locate the vague concept in translation theory and practice, a case study is conducted on a Facebook campaign working on a cultural issue. The critical discourse analysis of the translated texts published in this page helps to realize the abstract concept of deterritorialization, and indicates the real efficacy of translation in its implementation in the sense of the global spread of culture-specific elements. Based on the new perspective, a modified definition is represented that situates deterritorialization as a new concept in Translation Studies serving the issues and challenges of the field.</p> Hoda Zamani Sarzendeh Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/661 Comparing Two Translations of the Holy Qur’an: A Case Study on Sura Tariq https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/660 <p>The purpose of this article was three-fold. First, it compared two translations of the Sura Tariq from the Holy Qur’an (i.e. the 2001 translation of Abdullah Yusuf Ali, and the 2001 translation of Tahereh Saffarzadeh) based on Newmark's (1988) translation procedures. Then it investigated which translation was more accurate and also determined the differences between the two translations in terms of style. The comparisons show that although there were some similarities between the two translations, Yusuf Ali’s translation was a semantic translation and Saffarzadeh’s was an adaptation one. The results also show that unlike Yusuf Ali’s translation, Saffarzadeh’s translation was more faithful to the Qur’an structure and she used ordinary and contemporary English in her translation.</p> farzaneh khodabandeh Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/660 A case study research of the translation of Iranian legal concepts Relying on the jurilinguistics of Geneva https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/653 <p>&nbsp;اهداف مورد نظر این پژوهش معرفی افقی جدید به نام مطالعۀ ترجمه با رویکرد زبانشناسی حقوقی در جامعۀ حقوقی آکادمیک ایران و لزوم توجه به مبانی و تئوری­های ترجمه توأم با آشنایی مترجمان حقوقی با مفاهیم و تأسیسات حقوقی از طریق مطالعات تطبیقی حقوق و نیز مطالعه موردی برخی از مفاهیم حقوقی برای تبیین نظریه زبانشناسی حقوقی است. در پژوهش حاضر از روش توصیفی و نمونه پژوهی استفاده شده است. در ابتدا به مطالعۀ &nbsp;نظریه زبانشناسی حقوقی ژنو خواهیم پرداخت .از آنجاییکه نظام حقوقی ایران برپایه شریعت اسلامی است و در عین حال بهره مند از نظام حقوق رومی ژرمنی است، ترجمۀ مفاهیم حقوقی ایران به زبان فرانسه نیازمند آشنایی با نظریه زبانشناسی حقوقی ژنو است. پیکره اصلی مقاله که مفاهیمی از آن بعنوان نمونه مورد مطالعه قرار می گیرد کتاب هفتم از جلد دوم قانون مدنی ایران است که قانونگذار در آن دو تأسیس نکاح و طلاق را مورد تقنین قرار داده است. مفاهیمی چند از این بخش از قانون را با مراجعه به <em>ترمینولوژی حقوق</em> تألیف دکتر محمد جعفر جعفری لنگرودی بعنوان منبع موثق واژه شناسی حقوقی ایران و نیز با رجوع به سایر منابع معتبر حقوقی مورد مطالعه قرار خواهیم داد.&nbsp;</p> فرناز ساسانی; هدیه نصیری Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/653 A Marxist Critique of Postcolonial Translation Studies https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/652 <p>Postcolonial Translation Studies has been among the prominent trends in the field during the past three decades. This wide-ranging interest in postcolonial investigations of translation has been so significant that Petterson (1999) identifies “the postcolonial turn” in Translation Studies. Postcolonial approaches in Translation Studies have a twofold purpose: firstly, to investigate the effects of power imbalances in transcultural communications on translation process and product, and, secondly, to find ways in which “translation might contribute to exposing, challenging and decolonizing the legacy of colonialism and various forms of neo-colonialism in a postcolonial era” (Hui, 2013, p. 200). Another field which is engaged with the problem of power imbalances among different societies is Marxism. Marxism and postcolonial studies have both claimed to be anticolonial movements, but Marxists have been critical of postcolonial studies approach to colonialism. The present study tried to use critical perspectives provided by Marxism to see whether postcolonial Translation Studies have been contributive to the campaign against (neo)colonial exploitation of the colonized people or not. The results show that postcolonial Translation Studies has ignored the importance of Capitalism in analyzing translation in colonial and postcolonial situation. Furthermore, it is shown that the resistance strategies adapted in postcolonial translation have little significant result in the Real world.</p> Hussein Mollanazar, Saeed Fuladi Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/652 Fri, 05 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0430 An Analysis of Humor in an American Animation and Comparing its Strategies and Impact of Reception Environment Applied in its Persian Dubbings https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/651 <p>The purpose of this article was three-fold. First, five translators identified humorous expressions from fourteen episodes of an animated comedy entitled "<em>The Boss Baby</em>". Then, the selected expressions were compared to their dubbings conducted by Nahal and Gem Junior channels and the translation strategies were analyzed based on the translation of humor suggested by Chiaro (2010), then the impact of the reception environment&nbsp; and the reasons for using each strategy were investigated based on Chaume's (2012) model. The frequency and percentage of strategies applied were calculated and the findings revealed that while literal translation was the most frequently used strategy in Gem Junior channel, substitution and omission were the dominant strategies used in the other one. Nahal channel naturally rendered the dialogues according to the Iranian children’s culture; therefore, it’s translation was target-oriented. On the other hand, Gem Junior channel's translation opted for a method which was between both domestication and foreignization. Finally, the results showed that the translation of both channels met the quality standards of dubbing.</p> farzaneh khodabandeh Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/651 Representation of Religious Identity in the Persian Translations of the Power and the Glory in the Pre- and Post-Islamic Revolution of Iran https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/649 <p>The narrative theory has entered the domain of Translation Studies via Baker`s well-known book <em>Narrative and Conflict</em> (2006). Baker introduced the the model of narrative analysis for investigating identity constitution as a part of social reality construction in narratives and their translations across languages and cultures. Likewise, the present study investigated the representation of religious identity in the Persian translations of <em>the Power and the Glory</em> (Greene, 1946) in the pre- and post-Islamic Revolution eras in Iran. In so doing, Baker`s model (2006) was applied, by which the translations and the original text were analyzed at both micro-and macro-levels. The results of the study revealed that the protagonist`s religious identity was represented in accordance with the Christian and Western values and terms in the pre-Islamic Revolution Persian translation. However, his identity was misrepresented in the post-Islamic Revolution Persian translation as it was done in consensus with the Islamic values and terms. Finally, it was concluded that the TT1 served the dissemination of the foreign social reality in the Iranian society, while the TT2 intentionally manipulated the original social reality to diffuse the system`s preferred reality in the Islamic society of Iran.</p> Salar Manafi Anari, Sirvan Aminzadeh Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/649 Thu, 23 May 2019 00:00:00 +0430 An Analysis of Humor in an American Animation and Comparing its Strategies and Impact of Reception Environment Applied in its Persian Dubbings https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/648 <p>The purpose of this article was fourfold. First, five translators identified humorous expressions from fourteen episodes of an animated comedy entitled "<em>The Boss Baby</em>" based on the model proposed by Dynel (2009). Then, the selected expressions were compared to their dubbings conducted by Nahal and Gem Junior channels and the translation strategies were analyzed based on the translation of humor suggested by Chiaro (2010), then the impact of the reception environment and the reasons for using each strategy were investigated based on Chaume's (2012) model. The frequency and percentage of strategies applied were calculated and the findings revealed that while literal translation was the most frequently used strategy in Gem Junior channel, substitution and omission were the dominant strategies used in the other one. Nahal channel naturally rendered the dialogues according to the Iranian children’s culture; therefore, it’s translation was target-oriented. On the other hand, Gem Junior channel's translation opted for a method which was between both domestication and foreignization. Finally, the results showed that the translation of both channels met the quality standards of dubbing. Regarding the credibility of the dialogues, the dubbed scripts of Gem Junior channel were more adequate in relation to the source than Nahal channel.</p> farzaneh khodabandeh Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/648 Probing into Iranian Translation Students'Unwillingness to Translate and Thinking Personality Type https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/647 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The current study was an attempt to find out whether <em>Thinking</em> personality type predicted Iranian translation students’ unwillingness to translate. To this end, out of 95 participants, 50 participants from Emam Reza and&nbsp; Tabaran universities, studying English Translation in Mashhad, Iran, were selected based on convenience-random sampling. To gather the data two research instruments were utilized. The first one was Unwillingness to Translate (UWTT) questionnaire. It includes 33 Likert-tem scale. The second one was a 15-item Briggs-Myers (1944) questionnaire. It consists of dichotomy measure as Extrovert/ Introvert, Sensing/ Intuitive, Thinking/ Feeling, Judging/ Perceiving. Regression was run to analyze the data. The findings indicated that <em>Thinking</em> personality type is the most effective personality type which can influence and predict UWTT. Based on Jung, <em>Thinking</em> is the process we use for evaluating information by applying objective and logical criteria.</p> Effat Dashti, Behzad Ghonsooly Hezare Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/647 نقد و بررسی ترجمه بصیر الملک (مطالعه موردی ترجمه ترکیب های وصفی- اضافی در قرآن کریم) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/644 <p>One of the translations of the Qur'an that enjoyed fame and gravity during the Qajar period, and was welcomed for many years, was translated by Mirza Tahir Basir al-Molk from the religious relics of the Nasir al-Din Shah court. This rationale, while having advantages and privileges, is not crammed with defects and landslides, as well as other translations, can be criticized.This research, using descriptive-analytical method and collecting information in phishing and translating more accurately, seeks to investigate the technical and literary pathology of Basir Al-Molk's translation by presenting its proposed evidence and translation in the discussion of additional compositional descriptions. Review it. The results of this research show that the translation of Basir al-Mulk has a mistake and error in the field of additional compound combinations, including: a brief description of the description of the layout of the additions. Which has been criticized by evidence of verses.</p> ابراهیم فلاح Copyright (c) https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/644 The Role of Translation in Debut of Theatre on Iranian Stage and Evolution of Contemporary Persian Drama https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/643 <p>Evolution of contemporary Persian drama was not without a historical background. The Iranians were acquainted with<em> dramatic conversations</em> and <em>performances</em>, the indispensable elements of theatre. From among the Inranian traditional performances it was <em>Ta’zieh</em> which could deviate from its ritual path. Developed from a simple public mourning into a full-fledged national drama, <em>Ta’zieh</em>’s theatrical aspects increased; though in Qajar period the way was paved for <em>Tazieh</em> to evolve into a national theatre, it was not promoted to that position. Social and political changes under the Constitutional Revolution shaped a new order in the Iraninan society. With reshaping of the Iranian socio-cultural polysystem the young domestic model of drama (<em>Ta’zieh</em>) was shuned by influential social classes, pushed to periphery and a foreign model (<em>Theatre</em>) was adopted. In this process translation assumed a central position. Applying polysystem theory, this study is an attempt to investigate the role and position of translation in the process of the evolution of contemporary Persian drama. To this aim, after surveying the Iranian’s familiarity with dramatic conversations and the art of performance and their paths to developing into dramatic literature, the influential people, texts, events and trends which in specific historical moments paved the way for the evolution of contemporary Persian drama were accounted.</p> Mostafa Ahmadi Copyright (c) 2019 Translation Studies Quarterly https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/643 Fri, 05 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0430