Translation Studies Quarterly en-US (Hussein Mollanazar) (Hamid Sadeghieh) Sun, 03 Oct 2021 22:10:52 +0330 OJS 60 An Investigation into the Semantic Domains of Dysphemistic Forms in The Catcher in the Rye and its Persian Translation and their Translation Strategies <p>This study sought to identify the semantic domains of the various realizations of dysphemism in <em>The Catcher in the Rye</em> and its Persian translation. It also aimed at spotting the translation strategies employed by Translator Najafi in rendering them into Persian. The novel was chosen as it encompasses quite a lot of dysphemistic expressions in the first-person account of the teenage narrator. In an initial pilot phase of analysis, six general semantic domains of relieving, sex, religion, animals, insanity, and dirt were spotted to guide the rest of data analytic procedure. The three semantic fields of religion, insanity, and sex accounted for approximately 85% of all cases of occurrence of dysphemism. In regard to the translation strategies used by Najafi, the following strategies were identified as playing a significant role in rendering the realizations: deletion, transfer of identical semantic domains, transfer of different semantic domains, change of instances of strong dysphemism into those of mild one, and finally change of cases of dysphemism into those of euphemism. Studies such as these are liable to contribute to advancement of further research and discussions on the as yet under-researched area of dysphemism.</p> Alireza Rasti Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly Sun, 03 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0330 Methods of Translating Metonymies in The Masnavi: Boosting Larson's (1984) Model <p>Translation suffers from many limitations, one of which is the rendition of metonymical expressions from one language into another. Rarely any language can be found wherein no metonymy is used. This study is conducted to compare and analyze metonymies in Rumi&rsquo;s<em> Masnavi </em>and its English translation by Mojaddedi (2004). Larson&rsquo;s (1984) model was adopted as the framework for analyzing the way metonymies were rendered. In the first phase, the source-text metonymies and their equivalents were extracted from <em>the First Book of the Masnavi</em> and its translation. Then, the methods employed in rendering each metonymy were specified and the frequency of each method was determined. Finally, it was attempted to boost the current model. The results showed that &lsquo;literal translation&rsquo; was the most commonly used method while &lsquo;translation of metonymy into metonymic entity plus sense&rsquo; was the least frequently adopted method. Also, the study proved that Larson&rsquo;s model doesn&rsquo;t cover all methods used by Mojaddedi. Additionally, four new methods were detected by the researchers including Literal translation, Deletion, Generalization, and Specification.</p> Zohreh Parvaz, Mahmoud Afrouz Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly Sun, 03 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0330 Translational Resistance and Constitutional Movement: The Case of One-Word Treatise in Constitutionalist Narrative Communities <p>The relationship between translation and power is realized differently; some subservient translators produce submissive translations that conform to the norms set by power, while others choose to resist and produce resistant translations that bring about socio-political transformations. Concerning Baker&rsquo;s (in Tymoczko 2010) conceptualization of the link between resistant or activist translations and narrative communities, this study intends to examine <em>One-Word Treatise</em> as a resistant translation in the Naseri period. Hence, it attempts to examine what resistant strategies were employed by the translator and whether there was a link between this translation and the narrative communities such as Farāmoushkhāneh and Jāmeʿ-e Ādamīyat. The analysis of <em>One-Word Treatise</em> as the textual data showed that Mostashar al-Dowleh chose interventionist strategies such as addition, deletion and manipulation to adapt the original text to the Islamic Sharia. Moreover, he could introduce alternative metanarratives such as freedom and law into these narrative communities. It is concluded that <em>One-Word Treatise</em> as an adaptation of the French Declaration of Human Rights was a resistant translation which countered Naser al-Din Shah&rsquo;s repressive policies and created counter-discourses and paved the way for a political subversion, namely the declaration of constitutionalism under the rule of Mozaffar al-Din Shah despite the bitter fate that befell the translator.</p> Parvaneh Ma‘azallahi Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly Sun, 03 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0330 The Relationship between Eight Components of Multiple Intelligences (MI) and Consecutive Interpreting Performance of Iranian Male and Female Trainee Interpreters <p>Gardner&rsquo;s Multiple-Intelligences profile can serve as a powerful instrument for assessment of learners' abilities and aptitudes. This empirical study aims at finding any potential relationship between Iranian male and female trainee interpreters' scores in Multiple Intelligences (MI) and their performance in consecutive interpreting. 109 participants were chosen for the study. The instruments include 3 questionnaires and a summative test. Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient and Kendall's partial rank correlation coefficient were used for analyzing the data. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant correlation between bodily-kinesthetic intelligence and consecutive interpreting performance in males and a significant correlation between linguistic-verbal and mathematical-logical intelligences and consecutive interpreting performance in females. It can be concluded that among male trainee interpreters, those with a higher bodily-kinesthetic intelligence can be more promising candidates for interpreting courses. And among female trainee interpreters, those with a higher linguistic-verbal and mathematical-logical intelligences can become more competent interpreters.</p> Zahra Golshahi, Gholamreza Tajvidi Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly Sun, 03 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0330 A Socio-Historical Orientalist Approach to the European Translations of Ferdowsi's The Epic of Kings <p>Orientalist translation analysis, particularly in the case of masterpieces of Eastern literature, remains underdeveloped in translation studies, and many investigations are required to address its various dimensions. A problem is that studies rarely draw on a relatively objective, model-oriented approach to Orientalism in translation. This study relies on a socio-historical model of Orientalist translation applied to a corpus of European renditions of Ferdowsi&rsquo;s <em>Shahnameh</em>&nbsp;(<em>The Epic of Kings</em>). The model involves four elements: scholarly agency, continental translation, industrial/scientific superiority of orientalists, and the literary richness of eastern cultures.&nbsp;The data used in the analysis are collected from academic databases, encyclopedic resources, and conventional and electronic resources.&nbsp;The results suggest many of the translators are Western scholars. Moreover, many translations are based on another European translation as a mediator. In many cases, the translations advocate Western academic/investigative purposes, while relying on the advanced publication industry of their time. Finally, the appreciations/acknowledgments of the book reveal the reasons for choosing&nbsp;<em>Shahnameh </em>for translation.&nbsp;Besides confirming the functioning of the model, the study shows that translation is a derivative activity in many scholars&rsquo; profiles. The study also raises questions about the very definition of &ldquo;translation&rdquo; because the translated works analyzed represent considerably different qualities.</p> Maedeh Sarlak, Amin Karimnia Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly Sun, 03 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0330 Components of Translation Competence: A Job Task Analysis <p>Translator training programs&mdash;whether at universities or higher education institutes&mdash;have been mushrooming in Iran. The avowed objective of these programs is to prepare trainee translators for the competitive market. This article attempts to identify sub-competences of Translation Competence. To this aim, a job task analysis is conducted. First, a 12-member focus group are asked to set forth all a translator need to function competently&mdash;this involves filling out a 3-question survey followed by online interviews which have been recorded. Then, based on the data from the survey, a 50-item questionnaire is developed and distributed among professional translators to rate the items in terms of their importance. Finally, the results are discussed and compared with the PACTE&rsquo;s Translation Competence model. The results of the study show four categories of Knowledge, Skills, Abilities and Attributes, the majority of which are considered necessary for the success of a translator. Also, there is a significant correlation between the results of the present study and PACTE&rsquo;s Translation Competence model.</p> Farzaneh Farahzad , Mohsen Jazeb Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly Sun, 03 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0330 A Qualitative and Quantitative Inquiry into the Translation of English Fiction Titles into Persian <p>This paper sets out to study the translation procedures adopted by Iranian translators in rendering the titles of English fictions. The corpus comprised 300 titles of English translated fictions selected based on convenient sampling that was paralleled with their Persian counterparts. The books were published within the last three decades, and were authored by a wide range of English writers and have been translated by many Iranian translators. To obtain detailed and dependable results, the corpus was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The findings revealed that literal translation was the most frequent procedure followed by translators. Recreation, employment of related words, transliteration, reduction, adaptation, and addition were found as other translation procedures in the order of distribution. The frequency of recreation as the second procedure was the interesting result of the present study, in which translators opted for a completely new title irrelevant to the original title. Elaborating on the target text titles and the themes of their fictions in various procedures showed that almost all the changes applied to the original titles were consistent with the events of the stories or their final destiny.</p> Ameneh Yari Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly Sun, 03 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0330 Concept of Marriage in the Translation of La Reine Margot <p>In line with massive cultural and social transformations in nineteenth-century Iran, an authoritative translator, Mohamad Taher Mirza Eskandari, succeeded in translating a female-centered novel, <em>La Reine Margot</em>. In the decades leading to the constitutional movement, he introduced a translation with relative hegemonic power that managed to become an arena for articulating relatively modern ideas about the social institution of marriage and divulging the positioning of women within it. As a modern discursive practice, the translation was also launched as a platform to challenge the traditional conceptualizations of marriage. This case study used discourse analysis methodology (Fairclough, 1992) triangulated with thematic analysis (Braun &amp; Clarke, 2012) and comparative analysis proposed by Tymoczko (2002) and Pym (2014). It peruses to explore the strategies through which Eskandari&rsquo;s 1895 Persian translation of Alexandre Dumas&rsquo; French historical novel, <em>La Reine Margot</em>, sought to achieve hegemony, oppose the traditional premodern discourse, and pave the way for the introduction of new ideas about marriage. It also analyzes women&rsquo;s position within the translation. The main questions to answer are what strategies the translator applied to criticize and dissociate from the traditional social context and illustrate a modern concept of marriage, what aspects of marriage were foregrounded, and the implications of all this for the representation of women.</p> Farzaneh Farahzad, Hajar Mohamadnia Dizaji Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly Sun, 03 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0330