Translation Studies Quarterly en-US (Hussein Mollanazar) (Hamid Sadeghieh) Thu, 11 Mar 2021 20:52:34 +0330 OJS 60 Analysis of the Translation of “Lait” in the Holy Qur’an: Based on Theories of Speech Action Theory and Discourse Disconnection <p>To understand the meaning of phrases and text, it is necessary to pay attention to the context of discourse and speech actions as one of the methods of cognition in order to provide effective translations. The Holy Qur’an is the miracle of the Prophet of Islam and the book of life, which was revealed by God to humanity as the final divine book. According to the philosophy of language, the present study tries to analyze the Quranic discourse and speech actions that govern the word of "lait" in the Holy Qur'an by combining the theories of speech action and discourse disconnection to achieve a correct analysis of discourse in these verses. Finally, this method produces the translations that are appropriate for the target language. The method of this study is examining the text based on analyzing, describing and matching. The result of the research indicates that based on the context and discourse disconnection, these phrases are a tool for action that may direct the translator's attention to the main message of the text with different utterances so that the translation of these verses moves indirectly from an impossible wish to a dynamic motive and action.</p> Farhad Divsalar, Masumeh Pouya Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 11 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0330 Challenges of Machine-to-Machine Translation from Persian to Arabic and its Pathology <p>With the advent of computers and information technology in almost all areas of human life and the increase in the efficiency of daily work, the field of translation is no exception. Despite the rapid pace of machine translation and the all-round development of new technologies, there are still many shortcomings in this area. The present study seeks to provide a descriptive-analytical approach to the challenging features and aspects of translating Persian into Arabic by machine translators, but this does not mean rejecting or opposing the types of machines and programs developed for this purpose, because this technology, despite its drawbacks and problems that we may face in translation, has also its advantages, including the ability to act quickly and save time and money. This study aims to take a step towards improving these machine-to-machine translations from Persian into Arabic by examining the case of these deficiencies and challenges, without questioning machine translation, by providing solutions to address these deficiencies and challenges. To do this, four of the most popular and powerful translation sites have been selected and reviewed. Then a solution is provided for each of the failures. The purpose of analyzing these challenges is to identify and address these deficiencies. The findings of the present study indicate that machine translation currently cannot replace human translation in terms of accuracy and efficiency, due to its inability to understand the context and adapt words quickly to the text, style and register, extract idiomatic and non-primary meanings and identify suprasegmental features affecting the text.</p> Mehrdad Aghaei, Younes Ghorbi Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 11 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0330 Persian Translations of Resistance Literature during the Iran-Iraq War <p>The present study aimed to identify Persian translations of English novels of resistance and examine their relation to the socio-historical conditions of Iran during the Iran-Iraq War, known in the national discourse as “the Sacred Defense period” (see Farahzad, 2011). For this purpose, the website of Khaneh-ye Ketab was consulted and 867 translations, embracing first translations, retranslations and reprints, were identified as Persian translations of English novels published during the period in Iran. Based on Harlow (1987) and DeShazer (1994), the themes of resistance literature were classified as race discrimination, class conflict, war, colonialism, post-colonialism, and totalitarianism. All translated novels of the period were examined to see which ones covered the above themes. The results indicated that 19% of all the 867 translations dealt with the themes of resistance, of which only 4% covered the theme of war, and about 80% concerned other themes. It can be concluded that translation of resistance novels was marginalized, the theme of war was not focal in such translations, and that translation of novels of resistance had little say in the discourse of the time.</p> Leila Alinoori, Farzaneh Farahzad Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 11 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0330 A Translation-as-Task Teaching Design to Enhance News Story Writing Skill <p>Attempting to place the practice of translation within a task-based language learning frame, the present study aims to investigate the effect of task-based translation on news-story writing. The participants in this study included 74 Iranian BA sophomores majoring in translation at Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch. After making sure the subjects have been homogeneously divided into experimental and control groups, the subjects in the experimental group were exposed to a six-week translation-pro task-based treatment, while those in the control group were taught via a conventional method of teaching a textbook on news story structure. In this pursuit, an evaluation exam on news-story writing was administered by the researchers before and after the treatment program, and the obtained data were analyzed by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences using descriptive and inferential statistics. The obtained results showed significant improvement in the news-story writing ability of those subjects who were exposed to the translation-pro task-based treatment. Furthermore, employing a translation-pro task-based approach could significantly improve the experimental group’s overall performance on news-story writing and its various sub-skills such as the use of Wh/H data (who, where, when, what, why, and how data), use of specialized words, context, consistency, structure, and simple language.</p> Negar Nowroozzadeh, Abbas Bayat, Abbas Mehrpooya Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 11 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0330 Publishers’ Notes as Conflict Management Tools in Translation Contexts <p>This paper aimed to examine the role of publishers’ notes in managing conflicts in translation contexts, and the strategies they adopt to deal with the conflict cases found in the main texts of the books they publish. Salama-Carr’s (2007), and Webne-Behrman’s (1998) definitions of conflict were adopted, and Thomas-Kilmann’s (1974) typology of conflict management strategies was used. The data came from the publisher’s notes of the Persian translations of a number of books written on the Iran-Iraq War, published by Marz-o-Boom Publication in Iran. The study found that a combination of three conflict management strategies, i.e. collaboration, competition, and compromise was adopted in the notes. The strategies of competition and collaboration ranked first in the notes. But, avoidance and accommodation were absent. Based on the findings of this research, it could be suggested that even highly-charged texts could be almost precisely translated and publicly presented if publishers consciously use their notes as conflict management tools. Adopting a proper combination of the strategies of collaboration, compromise, and competition, they may address the conflicts, but keep them at a level at which the Other’s ideas and viewpoints could be fully voiced, and used to broaden the readers’ understanding of the conflicts.</p> Marzieh Maddahi, Hussein Mollanazar Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 11 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0330 Translation Memes <p>Memetics as the cultural counterpart to genetics has provided us with new tools to study the transference and sharing of ideas within or across human communities. The present article is an attempt at working memetics into translation theory analysis. To this aim, the present paper explored some of the ideas from philosophers and translation theorists including George Steiner, Franz Rosenzweig, Paul Ricoeur, and Walter Benjamin in search of some shared strands of ideas forming the core of parts of theorization on translation. Scrutinizing some of the writings of these thinkers, either in the form of prefaces to their own translations or essays on translation, vividly revealed the presence of some basic trends such as sexualizing, or more exactly, effeminizing translation act, and attributing a hypothetical messianic mission to translation. On this basis, a tentative list of translational memes featuring femimeme and messianic meme was suggested. Seeing such common trends as translational memes follows that these trends are capable of transference and replication, a fact that was validated by reference to their vast spatio-temporal and cultural spread, and their common source of origin. The striking similarities found between such translational memes and Jewish mysticism showed that they could be of Kabalistic provenance. The findings indicated that working memetics into translation theory analysis is a worthwhile endeavor.</p> Mustafa Komeili Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 11 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0330 Pseudotranslation in Dr. Shariati’s Books <p>According to Toury (1995) pseudotranslation happens when in a translation there are “texts which have been presented as translations with no corresponding source texts in other languages ever having existed” (p.47). An example of this phenomenon is evident in Dr. Ali Shariati’s writings; they include some quotations which he has attributed to a professor called Chandelle while—as it was shown in this article—these are his own words. To evaluate the claim from a scientific point of view four books by Dr. Shariati were selected as corpus of the study and CUSUM (cumulative sum control chart) technique was used to compare writing style of Dr. Shariati and the so called professor Chandelle. The results of the analysis revealed that Dr. Shariati has used pseudotranslating as a strategy in his books and what he has claimed as translations from Chandelle’s writings have, in fact, been written by Dr. Shariati himself. The reason for this action could be the political conditions of the time under which he decided to hide his identity when criticizing the dictatorship to avoid later prosecution.</p> Mahvash Gholami, Mina Abdi Copyright (c) 2021 Translation Studies Quarterly Thu, 11 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0330