A Study of Ahmad Shamlou’s Translation of Federico García Lorca’s Poems in Iran from the Viewpoint of Descriptive Translation Studies and Cultural Turn
AbstractThe works of Spanish poet Federico García Lorca have been translated into Persian by many translators. But the narrative produced by Iranian contemporary poet Ahmad Shamlou seems to have earned a unique place among Iranian intellectuals. The “accepted” Lorca in Iran is a revolutionist who meets a painful death in opposing the fascist regime of Francoist Spain. Lorca becomes a symbol for the Iranian intellectual of the 1970s by Shamlou’s pen to evoke the senses of opposition and resistance. In this manner, Lorca’s works are translated into Persian somehow guided by the idea of his heroic death and have become popular poems with the theme of revolution. As a result, these poems are more the works of a Lorca created by Shamlou in the process of translating/rewriting and less those produced by the Spanish Lorca. The purpose of this study is to analyze the elements which have made Shamlou’s Lorca into a hero and compare Shamlou’s narrative with credible biographies of the Spanish poet and take a brief look at the most important changes introduced by Shamlou in poems of Lorca and realize how he changed the poems into the poems of a hero. It needs to be mentioned that the aim is not to appraise the authenticity of this narrative and poems; rather the aim is to find the reasons which have led to the acceptance of this specific narrative of life among all existing choices and countless possible narratives.