Nominal Metaphor Translation: Extension and Reference to Universal Metaphors by General Terms



Looking at nominal metaphors from the perspective of class-inclusion model of metaphor comprehension and universal (conceptual) metaphors view, the present article aimed to investigate the changes that might happen in a metaphor when it is translated from one language to another one. Participants of this study were 30 undergraduate students in the Department of English of Shahid Chamran University. All participants were Persian native speakers. They were given 35 nominal metaphors to translate from English into Persian. Based on the obtained results, it was found that when English nominal metaphors are translated into Persian, the vehicles of the metaphors tend to be replaced by general words. On the basis of class-inclusion model and universal metaphors view, two possible reasons are suggested to be behind this tendency. Firstly, general words are more readily extended. Consequently, they easily create larger categories that might include both literal and metaphorical sense of the vehicle. Secondly, general words create higher-order or sometimes universal metaphors under which a large number of metaphors are categorized. Universal metaphors are shared by many, and perhaps by all languages of the world. Therefore, they are readily understood across various languages and cultures.


Nominal metaphor; Class-inclusion model; Universal metaphors

Author Biography

Omid Khatin-Zadeh

PhD Candidate, Chabahar Maritime University, Chabahar, Iran;


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How to Cite

Yazdani Fazlabadi, B., & Khatin-Zadeh, O. (2018). Nominal Metaphor Translation: Extension and Reference to Universal Metaphors by General Terms. Iranian Journal of Translation Studies, 15(59), 135–152. Retrieved from



Academic Research Paper