‘Turk-e Shirazi’ in the Costume of ‘Sweet Maid’: Jones’ Orientalist Translation of Hafiz Ghazal Reframed
The sixteenth century on the Indian continent is marked by a further expansion of Persographia in the commercial sphere. This was due in part to the rise of the English East India Company which laid the foundation of a new direction in translation, as well. Against this backdrop, translation of Persian classics found a new edge, and Persian literature opened up new territories in Europe. Jones’ translation of the Ghazal ‘Turk-e Shirazi’, which opened up new avenues for Western scholars, was an example of this, generally regarded as an Orientalist translation in the service of imperialist purposes. However, this study aims to elucidate this translation through the idea of ‘virtuality’ of translation proposed by Chittiphalangsri (2014). To this end, not only was the English translation of this ghazal examined, but Jones’ conceptualization of Persian literature in paratext included in Poems Chiefly Consisting of Translations from Asiatic Languages was also considered. In conclusion, it appears that Jones’ domestication method was not adopted to exercise hegemonic power or to emphasize the Otherness of Hafiz. Instead, it originated from cultural negotiation rather than cultural hegemony and was intended to provide a ‘sufficient’ representation of this ghazal to the audience of the Romantic age.
Keywords:Domestication, Jones, Orientalist translation, ‘Turk-e Shirazi’ ghazal, Virtuality
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