Spatio-Temporal Deixis as the Signpost of Point of View in Three Persian Translations of Woolf’s To the Lighthouse
AbstractThis paper examines spatio-temporal deixis as the signpost of point of view technique in three Persian translations of Woolf’s To the Lighthouse. In this regard, some challenging questions are raised: what happens generally when point of view is translated into the target language and culture? Due to the linguistic differences of the two languages of Persian and English, how is it possible for a translator to keep or change such items as deictic expressions? Does any change of deixis in the process of translating, affect the whole text and hence, the social and ideological position of the original text? To answer these questions, this paper, having reviewed the main literature on the topic, tries to propose a linguistic and stylistic methodology for studying ‘point of view/focalization’ in both original and translation through the main narratological typologies, Uspensky’s among others. Having taken some deictic expressions as “now”, “then”, and “here” as examples, the paper comes to this conclusion that the three Persian translators have acted in the same vein, although they have chosen different equivalents for the same deixis in different sections of the novel. However, the challenge lies in the way in which the translators have dealt with these deictic expressions.