Writer’s Style in Translation
FID as Woolf’s Stylistic Feature in Three Persian Translations of To the Lighthouse
This paper examines translating FID (free indirect discourse) as Woolf’s stylistic feature in three Persian translations of TTL (To the Lighthouse). As a dual voice hypothesis, FID shows how the narrator’s voice has been merged with that of the characters’. However, the problem is whether the translator should translate STR structurally at the micro-level or functionally at the macro-level. FID has some syntactic, semantic, and textual features that might undergo some changes in the process of translation. As one of the grammatical features of FID, the progressive aspect is related to the character’s focalization but reported by the narrator’s voice through the past tense. Functionally speaking, three Persian translators have done their best to convey the effect and function of FID regarding both syntactic and semantic features. Through a quantitatively driven methodology, this paper has tried to tackle the issue of translating FID into Persian. However, Hosseini has felt that the shift from ID (indirect discourse) to DD (direct discourse) might transfer the ‘feel’ and the ‘tone’ of the ST. Keyhân has made the complexity of Woolf’s style more explicit and simplified. Bejâniân has paid less attention to Woolf’s style, giving a very literal and simplified rendering. Generally, the three translations by the three Persian translators have tried to recreate such feelings of FID as sympathy and empathy in the target readers, though with varying degrees. However, Hosseini has tried both to keep the stylistic features of Woolf and to present a translation for the target readers; a translation that creates the exact feelings of reading a Persian story in their minds.
Keywords:Writer’s style, STR, FID, Progressive aspect, Translation style
Banfield, A. (1982). Unspeakable Sentences: Narration and representation in the language of fiction. Routledge & Paul Keegan.
Bejâniân, M. (1991). Be sooye fanoos-e daryaei [To the Lighthouse]. Behnegar Publication.
Bosseaux, C. (2001). A study of the translator’s voice and style in the French translations of Virginia Woolf’s The Waves. In M. Olohan (Ed.), CTIS Occasional Papers (pp. 55–57). Centre for Translation & Intercultural Studies.
Bosseaux, C. (2004). Point of view in translation: A corpus-based study of French translations of Virginia Woolf’s To the Lighthouse. Across Languages and Cultures 5(1), 107–122.
Comrie, E. (1976). Aspect. Cambridge University Press.
Delzenderooy, S. (2008). A study of the Persian translations of narrative style: A Case Study of Virginia Woolf's The Waves [Unpublished master’s thesis]. The University of Isfahan.
Ehrlich, S. (1990). Point of view: A linguistic of literary style. Routledge.
Fludernik, M. (2005). Speech Representation. In David Herman, Manfred Jahn, and Marie-Laure Ryan (eds.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Narrative Theory (pp. 558–563). Routledge.
Gharaei, Z. & Dastjerdi, H. V. (2012). Free indirect discourse in Farsi translations of Mrs. Dalloway, Comparative Literature and Culture (CLCWeb).
Horri, A. (2002). A narratological approach to Henry James’ Daisy Miller: A theory and practice [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Allameh Tabatabaei University.
Horri, A. (2007). Barrasiye sabk-e Slehe Hosseini dar magham-e motarjem-e adabi dar dow tarjomehe be sooye Fanoos daryaei va khashm–o-hayahoo [A study of Saleh Hosseini’s style as a literary translator in two Persian translations of To the Lighthouse and the Sound and the Fury] [Unpublished manuscript]. Arak University.
Horri, A. (2010). Tarjome-ye goftman-e gheir-e mostagim azad dar seh tarjomeh-e Farsi be sooye fanoos-e daryaei [Translating free indirect discourse in the three Persian translations of To the Lighthouse]. Pazhuhesh-e zabanha- ye khareji, 57, 19–39.
Horri, A. (2017). Translational narratology: Toward a structural narratology-based approach to translating ‘point of view’ and ‘free indirect discourse’ through ‘deixis’, ‘modality’, and ‘transitivity’ in three Persian translations of V. Woolf’s To the Lighthouse. [Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation]. Allameh Tabataba’i University.
Hosseini, S. (1994/1370). Be sooye fanoos-e daryaei [To the Lighthouse]. Niloofar Publication.
Keyhân, K. (1378/2008). Be sooye fanoos-e dariaei [To the Lighthouse]. Negah Publication.
Klitgard, I. (2004). Dual voice and dual style: Translating free indirect discourse in Ulysses. Nordic Journal of English Studies, 3(3), 319–345.
Leech, G. N. & Short, M. H. (1981). Style in fiction: A linguistic introduction to English fictional prose. Longman.
McHale, B. (1978). Free indirect discourse: A survey of recent accounts. Poetics and Theory of Literature, 3, 249–87.
Pascal, R. (1977). The dual voice: Free indirect speech and its functioning in the nineteenth-century European novel. Manchester UP.
Plato (1944). Republic (B. Jowett, Trans.). The Heritage Press.
Rimmon-Kennan, S. (2002). Narrative fiction: Contemporary poetics. Methuen.
Ron, M. (1981). Free indirect discourse, mimetic language games, and the subject of fiction. Poetics Today, 2(2), pp. 17–39.
Rouhiainen, T. (2000) ‘Free Indirect Discourse in the Translation into Finnish: The Case of D.H. Lawrence’s Women in Love’, Target 12(1): 109–126.
Simpson, P., & Montgomery, M. (1995). Language, literature, and film: The stylistics of Bernard MacLaverty’s Cal. In P. Verdonk, & J. J. Weber (Eds.), Twentieth-Century Fiction: From Text to Context (pp. 138–164). http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415105903/
Toolan, M. (1988). Narrative: A critical linguistic introduction. Routledge.
Woolf, V. (1927). To the lighthouse. Feed books. http://www.feedbooks.coma