A Pragmatic Analysis of the Functions of Elaborative and Contrastive Discourse Markers in Translation Criticism

The Pragmaticalization of Meaning

Authors

  • Ali Mohammad Mohammadi Arak University

Keywords:

discourse markers, translation criticism

Abstract

This explorative study investigates the pragmatic functions of elaborative and contrastive discourse markers from a metadiscursive perspective. The metadiscursive investigations have revealed the widespread difference between propositional meaning and various flexible pragmatic behaviors of discourse markers results in ambiguity in human communication. The creative, complex, multi-layered context of discourse structure is the source of this flexible pragmatic behavior. This, in turn, results in pragmaticalization of discourse markers in social contexts. During this process, the propositional meaning of discourse markers is replaced with novel interactive meanings and functions in discourse. The exploration of pragmaticalzation system gives rise to an effective resource of knowledge, expertise, and skill in education, research, and learning in our scientific, educational, and administrative environments. Applying Fraser (2006) and Brinton (1996) models in the analysis of randomly sampled translation criticisms during three decades, this descriptive and qualitative study reveales that all examples of elaborative and contrastive discourse markers experienced the process of pragmaticalization. Consequently, a six- plane functional, pragmatic, and interactive, model for monitoring discourse structure in translation criticism genre was explored on the basis of flexible contextual variables. Moreover, the process of pragmaticalization was observed in three discoursal domains of ideation, action, and information. Therefore, the pragmatic functions of these meta-discursive elements are under the influence of the context resulting in a lot of complicated, novel, imaginative, and productive inferences.

Author Biography

Ali Mohammad Mohammadi, Arak University

Assistant Professor, English Department, Faculty of Literature and Foreign Languages, Arak University, Arak, Iran;

References

جعفرپور، ع. (1374). آزمون زبان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان دوم، مترجم، 60–65.

حسینی، ح. (1379). مشت در نمای درشت. تهران: سروش.

حسینی، ص. (1371) معرفی ترجمه­های برگزیده: ضد خاطرات، مترجم، 7، 22–28.

خزایی­فر، ع. (1373). معرفی ترجمه­های برگزیده: تام جونز، مترجم، 7، 32–49.

خزایی­فر، ع. (1374). ماجراهای شرلوک هلمز، مترجم، 19، 56–60.

خزایی­فر، ع. (1384 الف). چنین گفت زرتشت، مترجم، 41، 39–47.

خزایی­فر، ع. (1384 ب). در هزار تو، مترجم، 40، 34–38.

خزایی­فر، ع. (1384 پ). خاطرات پس از مرگ براس کوباس، مترجم، 4030–34.

خزایی­فر، ع. (1384 ت). بهشت گم شده، مترجم، 40، 24–29.

سالاری، ز. (1396). داستان دو شهر، مترجم، 58، 109–116.

شفیعی کدکنی، م. (1385). موسیقی شعر، تهران: آگاه.

صالحی، ع. (1394). نقد دو ترجمه از فلسفۀ اخلاق، اخلاق علوم تربیتی و روان­شناسی، 1، 38–52.

صیاد کوه، ا و رئیسی، آ. (1396). کارکردهای گسترده واو در گلستان سعدی. فصلنامه هنر زبان، 2(1)، 5–32.

عمران­پور، م, (1384). ساخت‌های همپایه و نقش زیبایی‌شناختی آن در کلیله و دمنه. پژوهش زبان و ادبیات فارسی، 1(5)، 121–146.

فانی، ک. (1387). ترجمه­ای دوران­ساز، مترجم، 48، 51–58.

فرهادی، س. (1394). نگاهی به ترجمۀ جدید کمدی الهی، مترجم 58، 141–156.

فقیه ملک مرزبان، ن. (1387). شور عطف. فصلنامه علمی-پژوهشی علوم انسانی دانشگاه الزهرا, 145–168.

کوثری، ع. (1374). نگاهی به ترجمه عشق سالهای وبا، مترجم، 17، 84–91.

کوثری، ع. (1395). ترجمه­های خان­بختیاری، مترجم، 61، 23–32.

محمدی، ع. (1394). درآمدی بر مدیریت گفتمان، پژوهش­های زبان­شناختی در آموزش زبان، (1) 4، 34–52.

نادری­مقدم، ش، (1390). میان ماندن و رفتن، مترجم، 61، 159–165.

Anderson, G. (2001). Pragmatic markers and sociolinguistic variation, Amsterdam: Johan Benjamins.

Abdolkhani, M. & Alipour, S. (2015). A contrstive study of discourse markers between Iranian and American physics lectures. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics, 8(1), 204–218.

Alkohlani, F. (2010). The Functions of Discourse Markers in Arabic Newspaper Articles. Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ALeKk03SWod3ENKf55m-dPCIURvmGK-

Ariel, M. (1998). Discourse markers and form-function correlations. in Jucker and Ziv (eds), Discourse markers: Description and theory. (pp. 223–261) Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Aysu, S. (2017). The use of discourse markers in the writing of students. Journal of Higher Education and Sciences, 7(1), 132–138.

Brinton, L. J. (1996). Pragmatic markers in English: grammaticalization and discourse functions. New York: Mounto de Gruyter.

Castro, C. M. (2009). The use and functions of discourse markers in EFL classroom, Profile, 11, 57–77.

Crible, L. (2017). Discourse markers and (Dis)fluency, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Crible, L. and Degand, L. (2017). Reliability vs granuality in discourse annotation, Corpus Linguistics, 16(2), 1–29.

Crible, L. and Degand, L. (2019). Domains and functions: a two-dimensional account, Discours, 4(5), pp. 15–30.

Degand, L. and J. Evers-vermeul. (2015). Grammaticalization or Pragmaticalization of Discourse Markers, Journal of Historical Pragmatics, 16, PP. 59–85.

Farhady, H. (1388). Research methods, Tehran: PNU Press.

Fisher, K. (2006). Approaches to discourse particles. Amstersam: Elsevier.

Frank-Job, B. (2006). A dynamic-interactional approach to discourse markers. In K. Fischer, Approaches to discourse particles (pp. 359–375). Oxford: Elsevier.

Fraser, B. (2006). Towards a theory of discourse markers. In K. Fischer, Approaches to discourse particles (pp. 240–256). Oxford: Elsevier.

Groute, G. (2002) Representing temporal discourse markers for generation purposes, Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/2416454_Representing_temporal_discourse_marker _Brigitte_Grote.

Hellermann, J., & Vergun, H. (2007). Language which is not taught: The discourse marker use of learners of English. Journal of Pragmatics, 39(2), 157–179.

Hyland, K. (2005). Metadiscourse: Exploring Interaction in Writing. London: Continuum.

Karimi, K. , Maleki, M. & Farnia, B. (2017). Metadiscourse markers in the abstract sections of Persian and English law articles. International Journal of Friegn Language teaching and Research, 7(1), 31–47.

Lewis, D. (2006). Discourse markers in English: a discourse pragmatic view. In K. Fischer, Approaches to discourse particles (pp. 340–356). Oxford: Elsevier.

Martin, J. (2015). Cohesion and Texture, In N. Tanen, T. Hamilton, and D. Schiffrin. (Eds.), The Handbook of discourse analysis (pp. 61–82) Oxford: Blackwell.

Martínez, A. C. (2002).The use of discourse markers in E.F.L. learners' writing, Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses, 15(4), 123–132.

Maschler, Y and Schiffrin, D. (2015). Discourse Markers: Language, Meaning, and Context. In N. Tanen, T. Hamilton, and D. Schiffrin. (Eds.), The Handbook of discourse analysis (pp. 179–221) Oxford: Blackwell.

Matei, M. (2010). Discourse markers as functional elements. Buletine of the Transilvania University of Brasov, 25–42.

Nejadansari, D. &.Mohammadi, A. M. (2014). The frequencies and functions of discourse markers. International Journal of Research, 4(2), 1–18.

Quan, L., & Zheng, L. (2012). A study of self-repair markers in conversation by Chinese learners. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 5(5), 1216–1223

Redeker, G. (2006). Discourse markers as attentional cues at discourse transitions. In K. Fischer, Approaches to Discourse Particles (pp. 339–357). Amstersam: Elsevier.

Renger, G. (2018). Discourse markers, An Enunciation, France: Mcmilan.

Schiffrin, D. (1987). Discourse markers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schiffrin, D. (2006). Discourse marker research: revisiting and. In K. Fischer, Approaches to discourse particles (pp. 315–339). Amstersam: Elsevier.

Schilder, F. (1998). Temporal Discourse Markers and the Flow of Events. Retrieved from: https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W98-0310

Scholman, M. & Demberg, V. (2017). Examples and specifications that prove, Dialogue and Discourse, 8(2), 56–83.

Seliger, H. & Shohamy, E. (1989). Second Language Research, Oxford: OUP.

Switzer, E. (1990). From Etymology to Pragmatics, London: CUP.

Tanen, N. Hamilton, T. & Schiffrin, D. (Ed.), (2015). The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, Oxford: Blackwell.

Urgelles-Coll, M. (2010). The Syntax and Semantics of Discourse Markers, London: Continuum.

Ying, S. (2007). An analysis of discourse markers used by non-native English learners: Retrieved http://www.kuis.ac.jp/icci/ publications /kiyo/pdfs/19/19_03.p

Published

2020-10-18

How to Cite

محمدی ع. م. (2020). A Pragmatic Analysis of the Functions of Elaborative and Contrastive Discourse Markers in Translation Criticism: The Pragmaticalization of Meaning. Translation Studies Quarterly, 18(70), 7-24. Retrieved from https://journal.translationstudies.ir/ts/article/view/802

Issue

Section

Scientific Research Paper